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Sahoo D.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Ummalyma S.B.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Okram A.K.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Sukumaran R.K.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology | George E.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2017

The aim of present study was to evaluate feasibility of using the Para grass as feedstock for production of bioethanol. Process involved the pretreatment with dilute acid or alkali and followed by enzymatic saccharification with commercial cellulase. Maximum sugar release of 696. mg/g was obtained from 10% biomass loading and 0.5% w/v of alkali whereas in the case of acid pretreatment maximum sugar of 660. mg/g was obtained from 20% biomass loading and 2% w/v acid loading. Results showed that Para grass utilization as a biorefinery feedstock can be a potential strategy to address the sustainable utilization of this invasive grass thereby keeping its population in check in the Loktak Lake. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Jeyaram K.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Romi W.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Singh T.A.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Adewumi G.A.,University of Lagos | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2011

PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene by universal primers followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using RsaI, CfoI and HinfI endonucleases, distinctly differentiated closely related Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus from Bacillus subtilis sensu stricto. This simple, economical, rapid and reliable protocol could be an alternative to misleading phenotype-based grouping of these closely related species. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Suthar S.K.,Jaypee University of Information Technology | Sharma N.,BAHRA University | Lee H.B.,Cancer Research Initiative Foundation | Nongalleima K.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Sharma M.,Jaypee University of Information Technology
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

The activation of transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is critical in cancer; they act synergistically in promoting tumor growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, combined targeting of NF-κB and COX-2 present an opportunity for synergistic anticancer efficacy. The ester prodrugs of pentacyclic triterpenoids reduced lantadene A (3), B (4), and its congener 22β-hydroxyoleanonic acid (5) with various non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) present a novel approach. The ester prodrugs of 3 and 4 with diclofenac showed promising dual inhibition of NF-κB and COX-2. The lead prodrugs 14 and 15 exhibited inhibition of inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinaseβ (IKKβ) in the single-digit micromolar range and at the same time, prodrugs 14 and 15 showed marked cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cell line with IC50s 0.15 and 0.42 μM, respectively. The prodrugs 14 and 15 exhibited stability in the acidic pH and were hydrolyzed readily in the human blood plasma to release the active parent moieties. Thus, we have synthesized novel hybrid compounds to target both NF-κB and COX-2 via a prodrug approach, leading to promising anticancer candidates. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Mohanty P.,National Research Center for Orchids | Das J.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2013

Artificial seeds were obtained through encapsulation of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Dendrobium densiflorum in calcium alginate beads. This paper demonstrates the alginate-encapsulation and conversion (complete plantlet regeneration) from PLBs, the effect of storage conditions (at different temperature; 4, 8, 16 °C, RT and duration; 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 days) on viability of encapsulated plant materials as well as the assessment of genetic fidelity of the regenerants. Individual PLBs were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for mass propagation, short-term storage and germplasm sharing. The superior gel matrix for encapsulation was obtained using 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O). The highest percentage of conversion (100 %) of encapsulated PLBs (capsules) was obtained on MS2 medium (MS medium + 2 mg/l BAP). Capsules were successfully stored till 60 days at 8 °C with conversion frequency of 95.5 %. Plantlets regenerated from encapsulated beads were acclimatized successfully with 95 % survival rate. A total of 40 primers were screened, out of which 10 primers successfully generated 39 scorable bands, ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 kb amplicons. The uniform RAPD banding profile among the plantlets derived from encapsulated PLBs following 60 days of storage confirmed genetic fidelity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Aggarwal B.B.,University of Houston | Deb L.,University of Houston | Deb L.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Prasad S.,University of Houston
Molecules | Year: 2015

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a golden pigment from turmeric, has been linked with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antidiabetic properties. Most of the these activities have been assigned to methoxy, hydroxyl, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety or to diketone groups present in curcumin. One of the major metabolites of curcumin is tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), which lacks α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety and is white in color. Whether THC is superior to curcumin on a molecular level is unclear and thus is the focus of this review. Various studies suggest that curcumin is a more potent antioxidant than THC; curcumin (but not THC) can bind and inhibit numerous targets including DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase-1, heme oxygenase-1, Nrf2, β-catenin, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-kappaB, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, amyloid plaques, reactive oxygen species, vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclin D1, glutathione, P300/CBP, 5-lipoxygenase, cytosolic phospholipase A2, prostaglandin E2, inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase-1, -2, P38MAPK, p-Tau, tumor necrosis factor-α, forkhead box O3a, CRAC; curcumin can inhibit tumor cell growth and suppress cellular entry of viruses such as influenza A virus and hepatitis C virus much more effectively than THC; curcumin affects membrane mobility; and curcumin is also more effective than THC in suppressing phorbol-ester-induced tumor promotion. Other studies, however, suggest that THC is superior to curcumin for induction of GSH peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, NADPH: quinone reductase, and quenching of free radicals. Most studies have indicated that THC exhibits higher antioxidant activity, but curcumin exhibits both pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties.


Sarangthem N.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Talukdar N.C.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Thongam B.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

NE India is considered as one of the centre of diversity of gingers having a total account of 24 species out of the 65 valid species found in the world. Manipur is one of the seven states of NE India with a mere area of 0.7% out of the total area of India. This paper focuses on the distribution, classification and evaluation of Hedychium species collected from Manipur. A total of 11 species were collected, identified and classified based on their morphological characteristics. The species are identified as Hedychium rubrum A. S. Rao et Verma, H. coronarium Koenig, H. chrysoleucum Hook., H. coccineum Buch.-Ham., H. thrysiforme Ker-Gawl., H. flavescens Carey ex Roscoe, H. stenopetalum Lodd., H. urophyllum Lodd., H. marginatum Clarke, H. villosum Wall. and H. elatum R. Brown. Evaluation of its botanical characteristics are also conducted. Analytical hierarchy process method is used in this paper to address the possibility of analysing the potential of these diverse Hedychium resources based on their ornamental, adaptability and utilisation potential which was evaluated on 12 indicator points. H. elatum scored the highest overall index making it the most potential species for sustainable exploitation followed by H. coronarium while H. villosum ranked the lowest. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Devi K.M.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Shantibala T.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Debaraj H.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD
Gene | Year: 2016

Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251 bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A + T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. © 2016


Romi W.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Romi W.,Gauhati University | Keisam S.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Keisam S.,Gauhati University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2014

Background: Meyerozyma guilliermondii (anamorph Candida guilliermondii) and Meyerozyma caribbica (anamorph Candida fermentati) are closely related species of the genetically heterogenous M. guilliermondii complex. Conventional phenotypic methods frequently misidentify the species within this complex and also with other species of the Saccharomycotina CTG clade. Even the long-established sequencing of large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene remains ambiguous. We also faced similar problem during identification of yeast isolates of M. guilliermondii complex from indigenous bamboo shoot fermentation in North East India. There is a need for development of reliable and accurate identification methods for these closely related species because of their increasing importance as emerging infectious yeasts and associated biotechnological attributes. Results: We targeted the highly variable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and identified seven restriction enzymes through in silico analysis for differentiating M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Fifty five isolates of M. guilliermondii complex which could not be delineated into species-specific taxonomic ranks by API 20 C AUX and LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 sequencing were subjected to ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis. TaqI ITS-RFLP distinctly differentiated the isolates into M. guilliermondii (47 isolates) and M. caribbica (08 isolates) with reproducible species-specific patterns similar to the in silico prediction. The reliability of this method was validated by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequencing, mitochondrial DNA RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Conclusions: We herein described a reliable ITS-RFLP method for distinct differentiation of frequently misidentified M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Even though in silico analysis differentiated other closely related species of M. guilliermondii complex from the above two species, it is yet to be confirmed by in vitro analysis using reference strains. This method can be used as a reliable tool for rapid and accurate identification of closely related species of M. guilliermondii complex and for differentiating emerging infectious yeasts of the Saccharomycotina CTG clade. © 2014Romi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. ©2014 Romi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Jeyaram K.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Romi W.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Singh T.A.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Devi A.R.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Devi S.S.,Manipur University
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Soidon is a non-salted acidic fermented food prepared from the succulent bamboo shoot tip of Schizostachyum capitatum Munro by using a traditional liquid starter called "soidon mahi" in Manipur state of India. In this study, 163 bacterial isolates associated with this starter samples were identified and their population distribution was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA sequencing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This acidic starter (pH 4.5±0.15) was dominated by a characteristic association of Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) together. The population distribution of dominant species were Bacillus subtilis 29.3%, Bacillus cereus 35.7%, Bacillus pumilus 2.6%, Lactobacillus brevis 9.6%, Lactobacillus plantarum 5.1%, Carnobacterium sp. 11.9%, Enterococcus faecium 1.2% and Pseudomonas fluorescens 4.6%. Alarming population load (106-107cfu/ml) of B. cereus in 87% of starter samples studied should raise concern regarding biosafety of soidon consumption. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ITS-RFLP profiles revealed a high diversity with eight subgroups in B. subtilis, five subgroups in B. cereus and three subgroups in L. brevis isolates. The most abundant B. subtilis subgroup IB.1 distributed in most of the samples showed very less clonal variability during RAPD analysis. The molecular methods used in this study identified the dominant strains of Bacillus and LAB distributed in most of the starter samples. These dominant strains of B. subtilis, L. brevis and L. plantarum would allow for developing a defined starter culture for the production of quality soidon. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Romi W.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD | Romi W.,Gauhati University | Ahmed G.,Gauhati University | Jeyaram K.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development IBSD
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2015

Microbial community structure and population dynamics during spontaneous bamboo shoot fermentation for production of 'soidon' (indigenous fermented food) in North-east India were studied using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent molecular approaches. Cultivation-dependent analyses (PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and rRNA gene sequencing) and cultivation-independent analyses (PCR-DGGE, qPCR and Illumina amplicon sequencing) were conducted on the time series samples collected from three independent indigenous soidon fermentation batches. The current findings revealed three-phase succession of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to attain a stable ecosystem within 7 days natural fermentation of bamboo shoots. Weissella spp. (Weissella cibaria, uncultured Weissella ghanensis) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris predominated the early phase (1-2 days) which was joined by Leuconostoc citreum during the mid-phase (3 days), while Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum emerged and became dominant in the late phase (5-7 days) with concurrent disappearance of W. cibaria and L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and uncultured Lactobacillus acetotolerans were predominantly present throughout the fermentation with no visible dynamics. The above identified dominant bacterial species along with their dynamics can be effectively utilized for designing a starter culture for industrialization of soidon production. Our results showed that a more realistic view on the microbial ecology of soidon fermentation could be obtained by cultivation-dependent studies complemented with cultivation-independent molecular approaches. Moreover, the critical issues to be considered for reducing methodological biases while studying the microbial ecology of traditional food fermentation were also highlighted with this soidon fermentation model. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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