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Rajashekar Y.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development | Raghavendra A.,National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects | Bakthavatsalam N.,National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects
BioMed Research International

Recent studies proved that the biofumigants could be an alternative to chemical fumigants against stored grain insect pests. For this reason, it is necessary to understand the mode of action of biofumigants. In the present study the prospectus of utilising Lantana camara as a potent fumigant insecticide is being discussed. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by Coumaran, an active ingredient extracted from the plant L. camara, was studied. The biofumigant was used as an enzyme inhibitor and acetylthiocholine iodide as a substrate along with Ellman's reagent to carry out the reactions. The in vivo inhibition was observed in both dose dependent and time dependent in case of housefly, and the nervous tissue (ganglion) and the whole insect homogenate of stored grain insect exposed to Coumaran. The possible mode of action of Coumaran as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor is discussed. © 2014 Yallappa Rajashekar et al. Source

Talukdar N.C.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

Cephalotaxus spp. are known to possess anticancer potential. In this present work, for the first time the effects of C. griffithii needle (CGN) extracts on human cancer cells were examined. The CGN was successively extracted with petroleum ether (PE), acetone and methanol. The extracts were tested for its effect on proliferation of cancer cells (MTT assay on HeLa, ZR751 and HepG2). Extract that showed the maximum growth inhibitory effect was subjected for mechanism of action study. These included apoptosis (morphological and DNA fragmentation assay), cell cycle (flow cytometry), caspase expression (Western blot) and activity (assay kit), p53 (western blot and TP53 siRNA interference) and telomerase expression (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis. Among the extracts, PE extract induced maximum cytotoxicity, with highest death occurred in ZR751 cells. Since, PE extract induced cell death was highest among the CGN extracts, with maximum cancer cell death occurred in ZR751 cells; we carried out mechanism study of PE extract induced ZR751 cell death. It was observed that PE extract induced ZR751 cell death was associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Knock down study revealed that p53 is essential for loss of ZR751 cell viability induced by PE extract. Further, PE extract down-regulated hTERT, hTR, and c-Myc expression. Thin layer chromatography analysis indicated the presence of unique phytochemicals in PE extract. Based on the observations, we concluded that PE extract of C. griffithii needle contains important phyto-components with multiple cellular targets for control of breast cancer and is worthy of future studies. Source

Rajashekar Y.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development | Vijay Kumar H.,Indian Institute of Science | Ravindra K.V.,National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects | Bakthavatsalam N.,National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects
Industrial Crops and Products

Due to environmental concerns, health hazards to man and the evolution of resistance in insect pests, there have been constant efforts to discover newer insecticides both from natural sources and by chemical synthesis. Natural sources for novel molecules hold promise in view of their eco-friendly nature, selectivity and mammalian safety. We have isolated one natural bioactive molecule from the leaves of Lantana camara named Coumaran, based on various physical-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS). Coumaran is highly toxic and very low concentration is needed for control of stored product insects. This molecule has potent grain protectant potential and caused significant reduction in F1 progeny of all the three species in the treated grain and the progeny was completely suppressed at 30μg/l. The differences in germination between the control and treated grains were not significant. The lack of any adverse effect of Coumaran on the seed germination is highly desirable for a grain protectant, becoming a potential source of biofumigant for economical and environmentally friendly pest control strategies against stored grain pests during storage of grains or pulses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Thokchom E.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development | Kalita M.C.,Gauhati University | Talukdar N.C.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development
Canadian Journal of Microbiology

Mandarin orange (MO) is an important fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A total of 217 morphologically distinct rhizobacteria from MO orchards in 3 states of northeastern India were isolated and analyzed for 4 plant-growth-promoting (PGP) attributes: nitrogen fixation, production of indole acetic acid like substances, solubilization of phosphate, and ability to antagonize pathogenic fungi. Isolates were ranked based on in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes, and 10 superior isolates were selected to test their effect on seedling emergence and seedling growth in a completely randomized pot experiment. These 10 isolates increased seedling emergence over a noninoculated control within 45 days after sowing. Five isolates, namely RCE1, RCE2, RCE3, RCE5, and RCE7, significantly increased shoot length, shoot dry biomass, and root dry biomass of 120-day-old seedlings over the noninoculated control. The beneficial effects of 4 selected strains, namely Enterobacter hormaechei RCE-1, Enterobacter asburiae RCE-2, Enterobacter ludwigii RCE-5, and Klebsiella pneumoniae RCE-7, on growth of the seedlings were visible up to 1 year after their transfer to 8 kg capacity pots. These strains were superior both in terms of in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes and of their beneficial effect in low phosphorus soil and, thus, may be promising bioinoculants for promoting early emergence and growth of MO seedlings. Source

Sanjukta S.,Regional Development Centre | Rai A.K.,Regional Development Centre | Muhammed A.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Jeyaram K.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development | Talukdar N.C.,Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development
Journal of Functional Foods

Soybean varieties of Sikkim Himalayan region used for Kinema preparation were fermented using two different protease producing Bacillus subtilis strains, B. subtilis MTCC5480 and B. subtilis MTCC1747. Fermentation of soybean increased radical (DPPH and superoxide) scavenging activity (3.1-24 folds), total antioxidant activity and reducing power in the aqueous extracts in comparison with unfermented soybean. This was supported by higher degree of protein hydrolysis (TCA soluble protein by Kjeldahl method), increase in free phenolics and free amino acid contents (proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and histidine) on hydrolysis. Change in antioxidant activity on gastrointestinal digestion of fermented soybean depended on the strains used for fermentation, showing specificity of the peptides formed during fermentation. Soybean fermented with potential proteolytic Bacillus subtilis strains enhanced antioxidant properties due to increase in peptides as well as polyphenols. By-products resulting from soybean processing also showed reasonably good antioxidant properties for their application as food/feed additive. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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