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Ruhnke I.,Free University of Berlin | Rohe I.,Free University of Berlin | Kramer C.,Free University of Berlin | Boroojeni F.G.,Free University of Berlin | And 7 more authors.
Poultry Science

Various milling methods result in different particle size distributions and, in combination with mash and thermal treatment (expandate) of the feed, may have an impact on nutrient digestibility, pH of the digesta and subsequently the performance of an animal. Since this aspect has not been widely considered in laying hens, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of milling method, expansion, and particle size of feed on performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and pH of digesta in laying hens. Twelve variants of the same diet were produced. Four different milling techniques (hammer mill, roller mill, disc mill, and wedge-shaped disc mill) were used to grind the feed cereals. Coarse feed was obtained from all four mills. Additionally, fine feed was obtained from the hammer mill and the roller mill. Each of the six feed variants was offered as mash or expandate, resulting in a total of 12 treatments. The duration of the experimental period was 21 days. A total of 576 layers, each 19 weeks of age, were used in eight replicates. The statistical analysis for the four milling methods and two thermal treatments was performed using a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement. The effect of particle size was investigated using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement including the coarse and fine particle sizes that were produced with the hammer mill and the roller mill as well as the mash and expandate. The animal performance and the pH of the digesta were not affected by the treatments. Ileal digestibility of starch was significantly improved by feeding mash compared to expandate (P = 0.013) and by feeding coarse compared to fine feed (P = 0.028). Based on this study, the tested milling methods can be used for the production of feed for laying hens without affecting performance and digestibility of nutrients. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Briesemeister D.,Institute of Immunology | Friese C.,Institute of Immunology | Isern C.C.,Institute of Immunology | Dietz E.,Institute of Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology | And 4 more authors.

To enhance protection from pathogens, housing conditions have been improved constantly. We wanted to test whether various environmental conditions and caging systems affect serum cytokine levels of immunodeficient mice differently than they affect immunocompetent control animals. We compared serum cytokine levels of immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice kept in three different environments: a specific pathogen free (SPF) breeding barrier with open cages. An SPF experimental unit with individually ventilated cages. An experimental semi-barrier with open cages. Serum from Rag1-/-, μMT-/-, IFN-γR-/-, IFN-γ-/-, IL-4-/-, the heterozygous controls and wild type C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice was analyzed for the presence of 10 cytokines (IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF). No major changes in cytokine levels were detected in mice exposed to different housing conditions. However, irrespective of immunodeficiency at 4weeks of age a number of mice from the breeding colonies with a targeted mutation (TM), both -/- and +/- mice, showed a statistically significant elevation of some cytokines (primarily IL-1α, IL-5) when compared to wild type BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We conclude that under SPF conditions, immunodeficient mice can be kept either in open caging or IVC systems without affecting serum cytokine levels. The more important conclusion, however, stems from the observation that there is a significant difference in serum cytokine levels between wild type and mice carrying either one or two alleles of a targeted mutation (either -/- and +/- mice). This suggests an altered base-line inflammatory responsiveness in the TM-breeding colonies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ruhnke I.,Free University of Berlin | Rohe I.,Free University of Berlin | Meyer W.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Kroger S.,Free University of Berlin | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Animal Nutrition

Ussing chambers are frequently used for in vitro evaluation of intestinal transport physiology. The current study describes investigating the jejunal tissue from laying hens using a specific preparation method and evaluates the effect of glutamine in the maintenance buffer. Tunica mucosa was stripped from 104 jejunal samples from 10 hens and stabilised by a net device. Fifty samples were maintained with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (Control), 54 samples with additional 5 mM glutamine (Group Gln). The percentage of responding samples varied between 87 and 100%. Mean short circuit current (ΔIsc,) [μA/cm2] of samples exposed to 10 mM glucose in the Control group and Group Gln was 17.0 and 14.6 (p = 0.836), respectively, of samples exposed to 100 μM phloridzin -13.3 and -11.8 (p = 0.712), respectively, and of samples exposed to 100 μM carbachol 4.7 and 3.7 (p = 0.450), respectively. In conclusion, the net-supported method enabled a reliable investigation of jejunum from laying hens. Glutamine in the maintenance buffer was of no significant benefit. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Lauscher J.C.,Vascular and Thoracic Surgery | Grittner F.,University of Sfax | Stroux A.,Institute of Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology | Zimmermann M.,Vascular and Thoracic Surgery | And 3 more authors.
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery

Introduction: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are frequent complications in colorectal surgery and may lead to burst abdomen, incisional hernia, and increased perioperative costs. Plastic wound ring drapes (RD) were introduced some decades ago to protect the abdominal wound from bacteria and reduce SSIs. There have been no controlled trials examining the benefit of RD in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The Reduction of wound infections in laparoscopic assisted colorectal resections by plastic wound ring drapes (REDWIL) trial was thus designed to assess their effectiveness in preventing SSIs after elective laparoscopic colorectal resections. Materials/methods: REDWIL is a randomized controlled monocenter trial with two parallel groups (experimental group with RD and control group without RD). Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal resection were included. The primary endpoint was SSIs. Secondary outcomes were colonization of the abdominal wall with bacteria, reoperations/readmissions, early/late postoperative complications, and cost of hospital stay. The duration of follow-up was 6 months. Results: Between January 2008 and October 2010, 109 patients were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group (with or without RD). Forty-six patients in the RD group and 47 patients in the control group completed follow-up. SSIs developed in ten patients with RD (21.7%) and six patients without RD (12.8%) (p00.28). An intraoperative swab taken from the abdominal wall was positive in 66.7% of patients with RD and 57.5% without RD (p00.46). The number of species cultured within one swab was significantly higher in those without RD (p00.03). The median total inpatient costs including emergency readmissions were 3,402±4,038 € in the RD group and 3,563±1,735 € in the control group (p00.869). Conclusions: RD do not reduce the rate of SSIs in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The inpatient costs are similar with and without RD. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

Roinishvili M.,Institute of Physiology | Chkonia E.,Tbilisi State Medical University | Stroux A.,Institute of Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology | Brand A.,Center for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy | Herzog M.H.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Vision Research

Performance in many everyday situations slows down when age increases. The causes of slowing down may be found on any stage of information processing. Here, we show that the combination of a vernier acuity task and the shine-through backward masking paradigm is a good paradigm to determine temporal processing deficits. The paradigm is relatively robust to optical blur and unlikely affected by motor dysfunctions. Strong masking deficits are found from an age of about 50. years on. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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