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Perez-Aso M.,University of Valencia | Segura V.,University of Valencia | Monto F.,University of Valencia | Barettino D.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Csic | And 3 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2013

We analyzed the kinetic and spatial patterns characterizing activation of the MAP kinases ERK 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by the three α1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) subtypes in HEK293 cells and the contribution of two different pathways to ERK1/2 phosphorylation: protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent ERK1/2 activation and internalization-dependent ERK1/2 activation. The different pathways of phenylephrine induced ERK phosphorylation were determined by western blot, using the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8425, the receptor internalization inhibitor concanavalin A and the siRNA targeting β-arrestin 2. Receptor internalization properties were studied using CypHer5 technology and VSV-G epitope-tagged receptors. Activation of α1A- and α1B-ARs by phenylephrine elicited rapid ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was directed to the nucleus and inhibited by Ro 31-8425. Concomitant with phenylephrine induced receptor internalization α1A-AR, but not α1B-AR, produced a maintained and PKC-independent ERK phosphorylation, which was restricted to the cytosol and inhibited by β-arrestin 2 knockdown or concanavalin A treatment. α1D-AR displayed constitutive ERK phosphorylation, which was reduced by incubation with prazosin or the selective α1D antagonist BMY7378. Following activation by phenylephrine, α1D-AR elicited rapid, transient ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was restricted to the cytosol and not inhibited by Ro 31-8425. Internalization of the α1D-AR subtype was not observed via CypHer5 technology. The three α1-AR subtypes present different spatio-temporal patterns of receptor internalization, and only α1A-AR stimulation translates to a late, sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation that is restricted to the cytosol and dependent on β-arrestin 2 mediated internalization. © 2013.

Fominaya J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Bravo J.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Csic | Decaudin D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Brossa J.Y.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 2 more authors.
Therapeutic Delivery | Year: 2015

Aim: Before starting preclinical studies, we have analyzed the integrity in serum of DPT-C9h, a promising therapeutic peptide, and performed modifications in order to improve its stability. Materials & methods: Mutant peptides exchanging arginine 8 for either lysine, asparagine or alanine were synthesized and compared with the parental peptide. Results: All mutants clearly improved peptide stability while keeping their functional activity. PK studies showed an enhanced stability, being Mut3DPT-C9h the most promising candidate. Biodistribution studies demonstrate that the modified peptide is able to reach the targeted tumor and accumulate there at higher concentration than the parental peptide. Discussion: Small modifications in the peptide sequence result in improvements allowing the selection of better candidates for preclinical studies. © 2015 Future Science Ltd

Frigols B.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Quiles-Puchalt N.,University of Glasgow | Mir-Sanchis I.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Donderis J.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Csic | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2015

Virus satellites are widespread subcellular entities, present both in eukaryotic and in prokaryotic cells. Their modus vivendi involves parasitism of the life cycle of their inducing helper viruses, which assures their transmission to a new host. However, the evolutionary and ecological implications of satellites on helper viruses remain unclear. Here, using staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) as a model of virus satellites, we experimentally show that helper viruses rapidly evolve resistance to their virus satellites, preventing SaPI proliferation, and SaPIs in turn can readily evolve to overcome phage resistance. Genomic analyses of both these experimentally evolved strains as well as naturally occurring bacteriophages suggest that the SaPIs drive the coexistence of multiple alleles of the phage-coded SaPI inducing genes, as well as sometimes selecting for the absence of the SaPI depressing genes. We report similar (accidental) evolution of resistance to SaPIs in laboratory phages used for Staphylococcus aureus typing and also obtain the same qualitative results in both experimental evolution and phylogenetic studies of Enterococcus faecalis phages and their satellites viruses. In summary, our results suggest that helper and satellite viruses undergo rapid coevolution, which is likely to play a key role in the evolution and ecology of the viruses as well as their prokaryotic hosts. © 2015 Frígols et al.

Gonzalez-Cabo P.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Gonzalez-Cabo P.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Csic | Gonzalez-Cabo P.,CIBER ISCIII | Palau F.,Research Center Principe Felipe | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2013

Neurological examination indicates that Friedreich's ataxia corresponds to a mixed sensory and cerebellar ataxia, which affects the proprioceptive pathways. Neuropathology and pathophysiology of Friedreich's ataxia involves the peripheral sensory nerves, dorsal root ganglia, posterior columns, the spinocerebellar, and corticospinal tracts of the spinal cord, gracile and cuneate nuclei, dorsal nuclei of Clarke, and the dentate nucleus. Involvement of the myocardium and pancreatic islets of Langerhans indicates that it is also a systemic disease. The pathophysiology of the disease is the consequence of frataxin deficiency in the mitochondria and cells. Some of the biological consequences are currently recognized such as the effects on iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis or the oxidative status, but others deserve to be studied in depth. Among physiological aspects of mitochondria that have been associated with neurodegeneration and may be interesting to investigate in Friedreich's ataxia we can include mitochondrial dynamics and movement, communication with other organelles especially the endoplasmic reticulum, calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, and mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control. Changes in the mitochondrial physiology and transport in peripheral and central axons and mitochondrial metabolic functions such as bioenergetics and energy delivery in the synapses are also relevant functions to be considered. Thus, to understand the general pathophysiology of the disease and fundamental pathogenic mechanisms such as dying-back axonopathy, and determine molecular, cellular and tissue therapeutic targets, we need to discover the effect of frataxin depletion on mitochondrial properties and on specific cell susceptibility in the nervous system and other affected organs. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Lopez-Redondo M.L.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Csic | Contreras A.,University of Alicante | Marina A.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Csic | Neira J.L.,University Miguel Hernandez | Neira J.L.,Complex Systems Physics Institute
FEBS Letters | Year: 2010

The small regulator SipA, interacts with the ATP-binding domain of non-bleaching sensor histidine kinase (NblS), the most conserved histidine kinase in cyanobacteria. NblS regulates photosynthesis and acclimation to a variety of environmental conditions. We show here that SipA is a highly stable protein in a wide pH range, with a thermal denaturation midpoint of 345 K. Circular dichroism and 1D 1H NMR spectroscopies, as well as modelling, suggest that SipA is a β-II class protein, with short strands followed by turns and long random-coil polypeptide patches, matching the SH3 fold. The experimentally determined m-value and the heat capacity change upon thermal unfolding (ΔCp) closely agreed with the corresponding theoretical values predicted from the structural model, further supporting its accuracy. © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

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