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Pantazi E.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Bejaoui M.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Folch-Puy E.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Adam R.,University Paris - Sud | Rosello-Catafau J.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2016

Introduction: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) involves a complex sequence of events and limits the outcome of various surgical interventions. Clinical trials, based on the data of experimental models, aim to prove whether a pharmacological or technical approach could be suitable to provide a beneficial effect in humans. Due to the complexity of IRI, few pharmacological treatments have been investigated in clinical Phase III.Areas covered: In this review we report clinical trials that test specific drugs in clinical trials of organ transplantation. These studies form part of Phase II trials and examine the administration of caspase inhibitors, P-selectin antagonist or an antioxidant component in order to attenuate cold IRI during transplantation. Moreover, we provide a brief description of drugs tested on trials of different clinical situations associated to IRI, such as the coronary artery bypass graft surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention.Expert opinion: Future clinical trials could be centered on the application of techniques suitable for organs with increased vulnerability toward IRI. Furthermore, the standardization of reliable biomarkers and a careful estimation of the impact of high risk factors may be the key in order to achieve a more critical evaluation of the obtained results. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.


Bejaoui M.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Pantazi E.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Folch-Puy E.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Panisello A.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | And 8 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) leads to significant tissue damage in liver surgery. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are water soluble nontoxic polymers that have proved their effectiveness against IRI. The objective of our study was to investigate the potential protective effects of intravenous administration of a high molecular weight PEG of 35 kDa (PEG 35) in steatotic livers subjected to cold ischemia reperfusion. In this study, we used isolated perfused rat liver model to assess the effects of PEG 35 intravenous administration after prolonged cold ischemia (24 h, 4°C) and after reperfusion (2 h, 37°C). Liver injury was measured by transaminases levels and mitochondrial damage was determined by confocal microscopy assessing mitochondrial polarization (after cold storage) and by measuring glutamate dehydrogenase activity (after reperfusion). Also, cell signaling pathways involved in the physiopathology of IRI were assessed by western blot technique. Our results show that intravenous administration of PEG 35 at 10 mg/kg ameliorated liver injury and protected the mitochondria. Moreover, PEG 35 administration induced a significant phosphorylation of prosurvival protein kinase B (Akt) and activation of cytoprotective factors e-NOS and AMPK. In conclusion, intravenous PEG 35 efficiently protects steatotic livers exposed to cold IRI. © 2015 Mohamed Bejaoui et al.


PubMed | University of Padua, University of Barcelona, Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC and University Paris - Sud
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2015

Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) leads to significant tissue damage in liver surgery. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are water soluble nontoxic polymers that have proved their effectiveness against IRI. The objective of our study was to investigate the potential protective effects of intravenous administration of a high molecular weight PEG of 35 kDa (PEG 35) in steatotic livers subjected to cold ischemia reperfusion. In this study, we used isolated perfused rat liver model to assess the effects of PEG 35 intravenous administration after prolonged cold ischemia (24 h, 4C) and after reperfusion (2 h, 37C). Liver injury was measured by transaminases levels and mitochondrial damage was determined by confocal microscopy assessing mitochondrial polarization (after cold storage) and by measuring glutamate dehydrogenase activity (after reperfusion). Also, cell signaling pathways involved in the physiopathology of IRI were assessed by western blot technique. Our results show that intravenous administration of PEG 35 at 10 mg/kg ameliorated liver injury and protected the mitochondria. Moreover, PEG 35 administration induced a significant phosphorylation of prosurvival protein kinase B (Akt) and activation of cytoprotective factors e-NOS and AMPK. In conclusion, intravenous PEG 35 efficiently protects steatotic livers exposed to cold IRI.


Losonczy G.,Debrecen University | Vajas A.,Debrecen University | Takacs L.,Debrecen University | Dzsudzsak E.,Debrecen University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the developed world. Numerous genetic factors contribute to the development of the multifactorial disease. We performed a case-control study to assess the risk conferred by known and candidate genetic polymorphisms on the development of AMD. We searched for genetic interactions and for differences in dry and wet AMD etiology. We enrolled 213 patients with exudative, 67 patients with dry AMD and 106 age and ethnically matched controls. Altogether 12 polymorphisms in Apolipoprotein E, complement factor H, complement factor I, complement component 3, blood coagulation factor XIII, HTRA1, LOC387715, Gas6 and MerTK genes were tested. No association was found between either the exudative or the dry form and the polymorphisms in the Apolipoprotein E, complement factor I, FXIII and MerTK genes. Gas6 c.834+7G>A polymorphism was found to be significantly protective irrespective of other genotypes, reducing the odds of wet type AMD by a half (OR = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.26-0.97, p = 0.04). Multiple regression models revealed an interesting genetic interaction in the dry AMD subgroup. In the absence of C3 risk allele, mutant genotypes of both CFH and HTRA1 behaved as strongly significant risk factors (OR = 7.96, 95%CI: 2.39 = 26.50, p = 0.0007, and OR = 36.02, 95%CI: 3.30-393.02, p = 0.0033, respectively), but reduced to neutrality otherwise. The risk allele of C3 was observed to carry a significant risk in the simultaneous absence of homozygous CFH and HTRA1 polymorphisms only, in which case it was associated with a near-five-fold relative increase in the odds of dry type AMD (OR = 4.93, 95%CI: 1.98-12.25, p = 0.0006). Our results suggest a protective role of Gas6 c.834+7G>A polymorphism in exudative AMD development. In addition, novel genetic interactions were revealed between CFH, HTRA1 and C3 polymorphisms that might contribute to the pathogenesis of dry AMD. © 2012 Losonczy et al.


Pantazi E.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Folch-Puy E.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Bejaoui M.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Panisello A.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | And 5 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a frequent complication in surgery, especially in case of steatotic livers that present decreased tolerance towards IRI. Apart from its major role in metabolism, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) has been related with positive effects on IRI. In addition, the deacetylase enzyme sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has recently emerged as a promising target for preventing IRI, through its interaction with stress-related mechanisms, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Taking this into account, this study aims to explore whether PPARα agonist WY-14643 could protect steatotic livers against IRI through sirtuins and ERS signaling pathway. Obese Zucker rats were pretreated or not pretreated with WY-14643 (10 mg/kg intravenously) and then submitted to partial (70%) hepatic ischemia (1 hour) followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Liver injury (ALT levels), lipid peroxidation (MDA), SIRT1 activity, and the protein expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3 and ERS parameters (IRE1α, peIF2, caspase 12, and CHOP) were evaluated. Treatment with WY-14643 reduced liver injury in fatty livers, enhanced SIRT1 activity, and prevented ERS. Together, our results indicated that PPARα agonist WY-14643 may exert its protective effect in fatty livers, at least in part, via SIRT1 induction and ERS prevention. © 2015 Eirini Pantazi et al.


Pantazi E.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Bejaoui M.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Zaouali M.A.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | Folch-Puy E.,Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC | And 4 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Aim: To investigate a possible association between losartan and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in reduced-size orthotopic liver transplantation (ROLT) in rats. Methods: Livers of male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were preserved in University of Wisconsin preservation solution for 1 h at 4°C prior to ROLT. In an additional group, an antagonist of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), losartan, was orally administered (5 mg/kg) 24 h and 1 h before the surgical procedure to both the donors and the recipients. Transaminase (as an indicator of liver injury), SIRT1 activity, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+, a co-factor necessary for SIRT1 activity) levels were determined by biochemical methods. Protein expression of SIRT1, acetylated FoxO1 (ac-FoxO1), NAMPT (the precursor of NAD+), heat shock proteins (HSP70, HO-1) expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress (GRP78, IRE1α, p-eIF2) and apoptosis (caspase 12 and caspase 3) parameters were determined by Western blot. Possible alterations in protein expression of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), such as p-p38 and p-ERK, were also evaluated. Furthermore, the SIRT3 protein expression and mRNA levels were examined. Results: The present study demonstrated that losartan administration led to diminished liver injury when compared to ROLT group, as evidenced by the significant decreases in alanine aminotransferase (358.3 133.44 vs 206 33.61, P < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase levels (893.57 397.69 vs 500.85 118.07, P < 0.05). The lessened hepatic injury in case of losartan was associated with enhanced SIRT1 protein expression and activity (5.27 0.32 vs 6.08 0.30, P < 0.05). This was concomitant with increased levels of NAD+ (0.87 0.22 vs 1.195 0.144, P < 0.05) the co-factor necessary for SIRT1 activity, as well as with decreases in ac-FoxO1 expression. Losartan treatment also provoked significant attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress parameters (GRP78, IRE1α, p-eIF2) which was consistent with reduced levels of both caspase 12 and caspase 3. Furthermore, losartan administration stimulated HSP70 protein expression and attenuated HO-1 expression. However, no changes were observed in protein or mRNA expression of SIRT3. Finally, the protein expression pattern of p-ERK and p-p38 were not altered upon losartan administration. Conclusion: The present study reports that losartan induces SIRT1 expression and activity, and that it reduces hepatic injury in a ROLT model. © 2015 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Aveiro, Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona IIBB CSIC and University of Coimbra
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2015

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a frequent complication in surgery, especially in case of steatotic livers that present decreased tolerance towards IRI. Apart from its major role in metabolism, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) has been related with positive effects on IRI. In addition, the deacetylase enzyme sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has recently emerged as a promising target for preventing IRI, through its interaction with stress-related mechanisms, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Taking this into account, this study aims to explore whether PPAR agonist WY-14643 could protect steatotic livers against IRI through sirtuins and ERS signaling pathway. Obese Zucker rats were pretreated or not pretreated with WY-14643 (10 mg/kg intravenously) and then submitted to partial (70%) hepatic ischemia (1 hour) followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Liver injury (ALT levels), lipid peroxidation (MDA), SIRT1 activity, and the protein expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3 and ERS parameters (IRE1, peIF2, caspase 12, and CHOP) were evaluated. Treatment with WY-14643 reduced liver injury in fatty livers, enhanced SIRT1 activity, and prevented ERS. Together, our results indicated that PPAR agonist WY-14643 may exert its protective effect in fatty livers, at least in part, via SIRT1 induction and ERS prevention.

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