Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology Biomedical

Lárisa, Greece

Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology Biomedical

Lárisa, Greece
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Mavropoulos A.,King's College London | Smyk D.,King's College London | Rigopoulou E.I.,University of Thessaly | Rigopoulou E.I.,Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology Biomedical | Bogdanos D.P.,King's College London
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Lymphocyte activation and fine tuning of downstream signaling circuits for the regulation of cytokine expression are critical for a successful immune response. Hence, technical protocols permitting simultaneous testing of these attributes in peripheral blood lymphocytes are of paramount importance. Phospho-specific flow cytometry is a novel methodology that detects phosphorylation of signaling effectors in multiple, rare cellular populations within peripheral blood. In addition, it allows the quantification of phosphorylation levels for signaling proteins within each single cell, and therefore is superior compared to traditional biochemical approaches, such as Western blotting. One such important signaling pathway within immune cells is the p38 MAPK pathway involved in the regulation of cytokine expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this chapter, we provide technical instructions for culturing human peripheral blood lymphocytes for simultaneous monitoring of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and associated cytokine expression, especially in rare cell populations, such as NK and NKT. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Rigopoulou E.I.,University of Thessaly | Roggenbuck D.,Lausitz University of Applied science | Roggenbuck D.,GA Generic Assays GmbH | Smyk D.S.,King's College London | And 9 more authors.
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2012

Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) has attracted the attention of liver immunologists for many years. This liver-specific lectin was found to be a major B and T cell autoantigenic target in patients with autoimmune liver diseases, and in particular in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). This review discusses the biological significance of ASGPR and its relevance to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and virus-triggered liver diseases. We also discuss emerging data on the diagnostic and clinical relevance of anti-ASGPR antibodies in light of recent reports based on commercially available anti-ASGPR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Finally, we critically revisit the data reporting on disease-specific cellular immune responses against ASGPR and their relevance in relation to the pathogenesis of AIH. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Fountas K.N.,University of Thessaly | Fountas K.N.,Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology Biomedical | Tsougos I.,University of Thessaly | Gotsis E.D.,Advanced Diagnostic and Research Institute Euromedica Encephalos | And 3 more authors.
Neurosurgical Focus | Year: 2012

Object. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the results of proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) in temporal poles in patients with unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) with the histopathological findings of the resected temporal poles. Methods. A total of 23 patients (14 male and 9 female) with a mean age of 25.2 years (range 17-45 years) were included in this study, which was conducted over a 4-year period. All patients suffered medically refractory epilepsy due to unilateral, MRI-proven MTS, with no other imaging abnormalities. All participants underwent preoperative single-voxel proton MRS using a 3-T MRI unit. The hippocampi and temporal poles were examined bilaterally. The concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were measured, and the NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, and NAA/Cho+Cr ratios were calculated. All patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and ipsilateral amygdalohippocampectomy, and surgical specimens from the temporal poles were sent for histopathological examination. Comparisons of the spectroscopic and histopathological results of the resected temporal poles were performed. The modified Engel classification system was used for evaluating seizure outcome in the cohort. Results. The preoperative spectroscopic profiles of the sclerotic hippocampi were abnormal in all patients, and the contralateral hippocampus showed altered spectroscopic findings in 12 patients (52.2%). Spectroscopy of the temporal poles demonstrated severely decreased concentrations of NAA, markedly increased concentrations of Cho, and increased concentrations of Cr in the temporal pole ipsilateral to the MTS in 15 patients (65.2%). Similarly, the NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, and NAA/Cho+Cr ratios were severely decreased in the temporal pole ipsilateral to the MTS in 16 patients (69.6%). Histopathological examination of the resected temporal poles demonstrated ischemic changes in 5 patients (21.7%), gliotic changes in 4 (17.4%), demyelinating changes in 3 (13.0%), and microdysplastic changes in 1 patient (4.3%). Comparisons of the spectroscopic and histopathological findings showed that the sensitivity of proton MRS was 100%, its specificity was 80%, its positive predictive value was 87%, and its negative predictive value was 100%. The mean follow-up time in this study was 3.4 years. At the end of the 2nd postoperative year, 17 patients (73.9%) were in Engel Class I, 5 (21.7%) were in Class II, and 1 (4.3%) was in Class III. Conclusions. Proton MRS detected altered ipsilateral temporal pole metabolism in patients with unilateral MTS. These metabolic changes were associated with permanent histological abnormalities of the temporal pole. This finding demonstrates that MTS may be a more diffuse histological process, and exact preoperative knowledge of its temporal extent becomes of paramount importance in the selection of the best surgical approach in these patients. Further validation of the observations is necessary for defining the role of temporal pole proton MRS in cases of temporal lobe epilepsy.

Kapsalaki E.Z.,University of Thessaly | Rountas C.D.,University of Thessaly | Fountas K.N.,University of Thessaly | Fountas K.N.,Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology Biomedical
International Journal of Vascular Medicine | Year: 2012

Intracranial aneurysms constitute a common pathological entity, affecting approximately 1-8 of the general population. Their early detection is essential for their prompt treatment. Digital subtraction angiography is considered the imaging method of choice. However, other noninvasive methodologies such as CTA and MRA have been employed in the investigation of patients with suspected aneurysms. MRA is a noninvasive angiographic modality requiring no radiation exposure. However, its sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy were initially inadequate. Several MRA techniques have been developed for overcoming all these drawbacks and for improving its sensitivity. 3D TOF MRA and contrast-enhanced MRA are the most commonly employed techniques. The introduction of 3 T magnetic field further increased MRA's sensitivity, allowing detection of aneurysms smaller than 3 mm. The development of newer MRA techniques may provide valuable information regarding the flow characteristics of an aneurysm. Meticulous knowledge of MRA's limitations and pitfalls is of paramount importance for avoiding any erroneous interpretation of its findings. © 2012 Eftychia Z. Kapsalaki et al.

Mylonis I.,University of Thessaly | Sembongi H.,University of Cambridge | Befani C.,University of Thessaly | Liakos P.,University of Thessaly | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2012

Adaptation to hypoxia involves hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) and requires reprogramming of cellular metabolism that is essential during both physiological and pathological processes. In contrast to the established role of HIF-1 in glucose metabolism, the involvement of HIFs and the molecular mechanisms concerning the effects of hypoxia on lipid metabolism are poorly characterized. Here, we report that exposure of human cells to hypoxia causes accumulation of triglycerides and lipid droplets. This is accompanied by induction of lipin 1, a phosphatidate phosphatase isoform that catalyzes the penultimate step in triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas lipin 2 remains unaffected. Hypoxic upregulation of lipin 1 expression involves predominantly HIF-1, which binds to a single distal hypoxiaresponsive element in the lipin 1 gene promoter and causes its activation under low oxygen conditions. Accumulation of hypoxic triglycerides or lipid droplets can be blocked by siRNA-mediated silencing of lipin 1 expression or kaempferol-mediated inhibition of HIF-1. We conclude that direct control of lipin 1 transcription by HIF-1 is an important regulatory feature of lipid metabolism and its adaptation to hypoxia. © 2012.

Mylonis I.,University of Thessaly | Lakka A.,University of Thessaly | Tsakalof A.,University of Thessaly | Simos G.,University of Thessaly | Simos G.,Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology Biomedical
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1α subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1α as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=5.16μM). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1α protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC50=4.75μM). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10μ kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10μM) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Kamposioras K.,St Jamess Institute of Oncology | Anthoney A.,St Jamess Institute of Oncology | Fernandez Moro C.,Karolinska University Hospital | Cairns A.,St James's Hospital | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2014

Background The clinicopathological factors that influence survival following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) for common bile duct (CBD) cancer are not well known. This study aimed to investigate the effect of tumour involvement of the intrapancreatic versus extrapancreatic CBD on margin status, overall (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survival. Methods This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent PD for CBD cancer between 2001 and 2009. Pathological examination was performed according to a previously described standardized protocol based on axial slicing. Clinicopathological data and outcome in terms of margin status, DFS and OS were compared between cancers involving exclusively the intrapancreatic CBD (CBDin) and those involving the extrapancreatic CBD, in isolation or combined with invasion of the intrapancreatic part of the duct (CBDex). Results A total of 66 patients were enrolled. Most CBD cancers were locally advanced (97 per cent pathological (p) T3, 76 per cent pN1). Microscopic margin involvement (R1) was more frequent in CBDex than in CBDin cancers (34 of 39 versus 13 of 27; P = 0·001), more often multifocal (P < 0·001) and more frequently affected the periductal margin (P = 0·005). Venous resection was more often required for CBDex cancers (P = 0·009). CBDex cancers were associated with worse OS (median 21 versus 28 months; P = 0·020) and DFS (14 versus 31 months; P = 0·015), but the rate and site of recurrence did not differ. Metastasis to more than two lymph nodes was an independent predictor of OS and DFS. Conclusion CBDex cancer is associated with a higher rate of R1 resection and venous resection after PD, and has a worse outcome than CBDin cancer. Worse survival in extrapancreatic cancers © 2013 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Kalousi A.,University of Thessaly | Mylonis I.,University of Thessaly | Politou A.S.,University of Ioannina | Politou A.S.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2010

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a transcriptional activator that mediates cellular response to hypoxia and a promising target of anticancer therapy, is essential for adaptation to low oxygen conditions, embryogenesis and tumor progression. HIF-1 is a heterodimer of HIF-1α, expression of which is controlled by oxygen levels as well as by various oxygen-independent mechanisms, and HIF-1β (or ARNT), which is constitutively expressed. In this work, we investigate the phosphorylation of the N-terminal heterodimerization (PAS) domain of HIF-1α and identify Ser247 as a major site of in vitro modification by casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ). Mutation of this site to alanine, surprisingly, enhanced the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α, a result phenocopied by inhibition or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of CK1δ under hypoxic conditions. Conversely, overexpression of CK1δ or phosphomimetic mutation of Ser247 to aspartate inhibited HIF-1α activity without affecting its stability or nuclear accumulation. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding experiments suggest that CK1-dependent phosphorylation of HIF-1α at Ser247 impairs its association with ARNT, a notion also supported by modeling the structure of the complex between HIF-1α and ARNT PAS-B domains. We suggest that modification of HIF-1α by CK1 represents a novel mechanism that controls the activity of HIF-1 during hypoxia by regulating the interaction between its two subunits.

Karanasios E.,University of Thessaly | Karanasios E.,Addenbrookes Hospital | Simos G.,University of Thessaly | Simos G.,Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology Biomedical
FEBS Letters | Year: 2010

Following the intricate architecture of the eukaryotic cell, protein synthesis involves formation of many macromolecular assemblies, some of which are composed by tRNA-aminoacylation enzymes. Protein-protein and protein-tRNA interactions in these complexes can be facilitated by non-catalytic tRNA-binding proteins. This review focuses on the dissection of the molecular, structural and functional properties of a particular family of such proteins: yeast Arc1p and its homologues in prokaryotes and higher eukaryotes. They represent paradigms of the strategies employed for the organization of sophisticated and dynamic nanostructures supporting spatio-temporal cellular organization. © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

Befani C.D.,University of Thessaly | Vlachostergios P.J.,University of Thessaly | Hatzidaki E.,University of Thessaly | Patrikidou A.,University of Thessaly | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Bortezomib represents the first proteasome inhibitor (PI) with demonstrated antitumor activity in the clinical setting, particularly for treatment of hematological malignancies. At the preclinical level, its action is shown to be mediated by induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in many tumor types, including androgen-dependent (AD) and androgenindependent (AI) prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Hypoxiainducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is directly involved in tumor growth, is one of the most studied and promising molecular targets for anti-cancer therapy and is often overexpressed in PCa. Bortezomib has been reported to impair tumor growth by also inhibiting HIF-1α. In this study, we investigated the effect of bortezomib on the expression, activity and localization of HIF-1α in LNCaP (AD) and PC3 (AI) PCa cells. First, we show that hypoxic upregulation of HIF-1α protein levels and activity involves both the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and p44/42 MAPK pathways. Second, bortezomib inhibits expression of HIF-1α protein under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, represses HIF-1 transcriptional activity and attenuates the release of vascular endothelial growth factor. These effects correlate with the ability of bortezomib to cause dephosphorylation of phospho-Akt, phospho-p70S6K, and phospho-S6RP, thus inactivating a pathway known to be required for HIF-1α protein expression at the translational level. Furthermore, bortezomib also abrogates p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, which results to reduced nuclear translocation of HIF-1α. Taken together, these results suggest that bortezomib inhibits HIF-1α protein synthesis and its nuclear targeting through suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR andMAPK pathways, respectively, in both AD and AI PCa cells. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

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