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Aguado-Fraile E.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria Irycis | Ramos E.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria Irycis | Saenz-Morales D.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria Irycis | Conde E.,Instituto Ramon Y Cajal Of Investigacion Sanitaria Irycis | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is at the basis of renal transplantation and acute kidney injury. Molecular mechanisms underlying proximal tubule response to I/R will allow the identification of new therapeutic targets for both clinical settings. microRNAs have emerged as crucial and tight regulators of the cellular response to insults including hypoxia. Here, we have identified several miRNAs involved in the response of the proximal tubule cell to I/R. Microarrays and RT-PCR analysis of proximal tubule cells submitted to I/R mimicking conditions in vitro demonstrated that miR-127 is induced during ischemia and also during reperfusion. miR-127 is also modulated in a rat model of renal I/R. Interference approaches demonstrated that ischemic induction of miR-127 is mediated by Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) stabilization. Moreover, miR-127 is involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion maintenance, since overexpression of miR-127 maintains focal adhesion complex assembly and the integrity of tight junctions. miR-127 also regulates intracellular trafficking since miR-127 interference promotes dextran-FITC uptake. In fact, we have identified the Kinesin Family Member 3B (KIF3B), involved in cell trafficking, as a target of miR-127 in rat proximal tubule cells. In summary, we have described a novel role of miR-127 in cell adhesion and its regulation by HIF-1α. We also identified for the first time KIF3B as a miR-127 target. Both, miR-127 and KIF3B appear as key mediators of proximal epithelial tubule cell response to I/R with potential al application in renal ischemic damage management. © 2012 Aguado-Fraile et al.


Pacheco-Torres J.,Institute of Biomedical Research Alberto Sols | Pacheco-Torres J.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Lopez-Larrubia P.,Institute of Biomedical Research Alberto Sols | Ballesteros P.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Cerdan S.,Institute of Biomedical Research Alberto Sols
NMR in Biomedicine | Year: 2011

Tumor hypoxia results from the negative balance between the oxygen demands of the tissue and the capacity of the neovasculature to deliver sufficient oxygen. The resulting oxygen deficit has important consequences with regard to the aggressiveness and malignancy of tumors, as well as their resistance to therapy, endowing the imaging of hypoxia with vital repercussions in tumor prognosis and therapy design. The molecular and cellular events underlying hypoxia are mediated mainly through hypoxia-inducible factor, a transcription factor with pleiotropic effects over a variety of cellular processes, including oncologic transformation, invasion and metastasis. However, few methodologies have been able to monitor noninvasively the oxygen tensions in vivo. MRI and MRS are often used for this purpose. Most MRI approaches are based on the effects of the local oxygen tension on: (i) the relaxation times of 19F or 1H indicators, such as perfluorocarbons or their 1H analogs; (ii) the hemodynamics and magnetic susceptibility effects of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin; and (iii) the effects of paramagnetic oxygen on the relaxation times of tissue water. 19F MRS approaches monitor tumor hypoxia through the selective accumulation of reduced nitroimidazole derivatives in hypoxic zones, whereas electron spin resonance methods determine the oxygen level through its influence on the linewidths of appropriate paramagnetic probes in vivo. Finally, Overhauser-enhanced MRI combines the sensitivity of EPR methodology with the resolution of MRI, providing a window into the future use of hyperpolarized oxygen probes. Tumor hypoxia has important consequences in the aggressiveness and malignancy of tumors, as well as in their resistance to therapy, endowing the imaging of pO2 levels with vital repercussions in tumor prognosis and therapy design. This review introduces the causes and consequences of tumor hypoxia and describes the main MR techniques implemented to visualize oxygen levels in cancers. The figure illustrates the MRI oximetry of H460 human tumor xenografts from rats breathing air or oxygen as obtained using perfluorocarbon methodology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Cerpa A.,European University at Madrid | Kober M.,CSIC - National Center of Microelectronics | Calle D.,Institute of Biomedical Research Alberto Sols | Negri V.,Associated Unit CSIC | And 5 more authors.
MedChemComm | Year: 2013

We report on the preparation and characterization of magnetically oriented single-walled carbon nanotube arrangements as novel nanoprobes to enhance anisotropically water relaxation as detected by magnetic resonance imaging methods. SWCNT suspensions immobilized in agarose gels showed evident magnetic anisotropy with significantly longer T2 in the parallel than in the perpendicular orientations. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Ramos-Cejudo J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Gutierrez-Fernandez M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Otero-Ortega L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Rodriguez-Frutos B.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 5 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2015

Background and Purpose-Translational research is beginning to reveal the importance of trophic factors as a therapy for cellular brain repair. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) administration could mediate oligodendrogenesis and remyelination after white matter injury in subcortical stroke.Methods-Ischemia was induced in rats by injection of endothelin-1. At 24 hours, 0.4 μg/kg of BDNF or saline was intravenously administered to the treatment and control groups, respectively. Functional evaluation, MRI, and fiber tract integrity on tractography images were analyzed. Proliferation (KI-67) and white matter repair markers (A2B5, 2,3-cyclic-nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase [CNPase], adenomatous polyposis coli [APC], platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha [PDGFR-α], oligodendrocyte marker O4 [O4], oligodendrocyte transcription factor [Olig-2], and myelin basic protein [MBP]) were analyzed at 7 and 28 days.Results-The BDNF-treated animals showed less functional deficit at 28 days after treatment than the controls (P<0.05). Although T2-MRI did not show differences in lesion size at 7 and 28 days between groups, diffusion tensor imaging tractography analysis revealed significantly better tract connectivity at 28 days in the BDNF group than in the controls (P<0.05). Increased proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitors was observed in treated animals at 7 days (P<0.05). Finally, the levels of white matter repair markers (A2B5, CNPase, and O4 at 7 days; Olig-2 and MBP at 28 days) were higher in the BDNF group than in the controls (P<0.05).Conclusions-BDNF administration exerted better functional outcome, oligodendrogenesis, remyelination, and fiber connectivity than controls in rats subjected to subcortical damage in ischemic stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.


PubMed | Institute of Biomedical Research Alberto Sols, European University at Madrid and Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED)
Type: | Journal: Journal of molecular graphics & modelling | Year: 2015

Computational modeling of the translational diffusion of water molecules in anisotropic environments entails vital relevance to understand correctly the information contained in the magnetic resonance images weighted in diffusion (DWI) and of the diffusion tensor images (DTI). In the present work we investigated the validity, strengths and weaknesses of a coarse-grained (CG) model based on the MARTINI force field to simulate water diffusion in a medium containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as models of anisotropic water diffusion behavior. We show that water diffusion outside the nanotubes follows Fics law, while water diffusion inside the nanotubes is not described by a Fics behavior. We report on the influence on water diffusion of various parameters such as length and concentration of CNTs, comparing the CG results with those obtained from the more accurate classic force field calculation, like the all-atom approach. Calculated water diffusion coefficients decreased in the presence of nanotubes in a concentration dependent manner. We also observed smaller water diffusion coefficients for longer CNTs. Using the CG methodology we were able to demonstrate anisotropic diffusion of water inside the nanotube scaffold, but we could not prove anisotropy in the surrounding medium, suggesting that grouping several water molecules in a single diffusing unit may affect the diffusional anisotropy calculated. The methodologies investigated in this work represent a first step towards the study of more complex models, including anisotropic cohorts of CNTs or even neuronal axons, with reasonable savings in computation time.


Henriques I.L.,La Paz University Hospital | Henriques I.L.,University of Lisbon | Henriques I.L.,Champalimaud Center for the Unknown | Gutierrez-Fernandez M.,La Paz University Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: After acute ischemia, the tissue that is at risk of infarction can be detected by perfusion-weighted imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging (PWI/DWI) mismatch but the time that is needed to process PWI limits its use. As DWI is highly sensitive to acute ischemic tissue damage, we hypothesized that different ADC patterns represent areas with a different potential for recovery. Methods: In a model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed to sham surgery and pMCAO. We further separated the pMCAO group according to intralesional ADC pattern (homogeneous or heterogeneous). At 24 h after ischemia induction, we analyzed lesion size, functional outcome, cell death expression, and brain protection markers including ROS enzyme NOX-4. MRI included DWI (ADC maps), DTI (tractography), and PWI (CBF, CBV and MTT). Results: The lesion size was similar in pMCAO rats. Animals with a heterogeneous pattern in ADC maps showed better functional outcome in Rotarod test (p = 0.032), less expression of cell death (p = 0.014) and NOX-4 (p = 0.0063), higher intralesional CBF (p = 0.0026) and larger PWI/DWI mismatch (p = 0.007). Conclusions: In a rodent model for ischemic stroke, intralesional heterogeneity in ADC maps was related to better functional outcome in lesions of similar size and interval after pMCAO. DWI ADC maps may assist in the early identification of ischemic tissue with an increased potential for recovery as higher expression of acute protection markers, lower expression of cell death, increased PWI/DWI mismatch, and higher intralesional CBF were present in animals with a heterogeneous ADC pattern. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.


PubMed | CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research, University Institute of La Paz, University of Santiago de Compostela and Institute of Biomedical Research Alberto Sols
Type: | Journal: Stem cell research & therapy | Year: 2015

Despite its high incidence, nerve fiber (axon and myelin) damage after cerebral infarct has not yet been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate white matter repair after adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) administration in an experimental model of subcortical stroke. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the ADMSC secretome and whether this could be implicated in this repair function.An animal model of subcortical ischemic stroke with white matter affectation was induced in rats by injection of endothelin-1. At 24 hours, 2 10(6) ADMSC were administered intravenously to the treatment group. Functional evaluation, lesion size, fiber tract integrity, cell death, proliferation, white matter repair markers (Olig-2, NF, and MBP) and NogoA were all studied after sacrifice (7 days and 28 days). ADMSC migration and implantation in the brain as well as proteomics analysis and functions of the secretome were also analyzed.Neither ADMSC migration nor implantation to the brain was observed after ADMSC administration. In contrast, ADMSC implantation was detected in peripheral organs. The treatment group showed a smaller functional deficit, smaller lesion area, less cell death, more oligodendrocyte proliferation, more white matter connectivity and higher amounts of myelin formation. The treated animals also showed higher levels of white matter-associated markers in the injured area than the control group. Proteomics analysis of the ADMSC secretome identified 2,416 proteins, not all of them previously described to be involved in brain plasticity.White matter integrity in subcortical stroke is in part restored by ADMSC treatment; this is mediated by repair molecular factors implicated in axonal sprouting, remyelination and oligodendrogenesis. These findings are associated with improved functional recovery after stroke.


Rodriguez-Frutos B.,University Institute of La Paz | Otero-Ortega L.,University Institute of La Paz | Ramos-Cejudo J.,University Institute of La Paz | Martinez-Sanchez P.,University Institute of La Paz | And 5 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2016

Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has been shown to be a promising tool to deliver proteins to select body areas. This study aimed to analyze whether UTMD was able to deliver brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the brain, enhancing functional recovery and white matter repair, in an animal model of subcortical stroke induced by endothelin (ET)-1. UTMD was used to deliver BDNF to the brain 24 h after stroke. This technique was shown to be safe, given there were no cases of hemorrhagic transformation or blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage. UTMD treatment was associated with increased brain BDNF levels at 4 h after administration. Targeted ultrasound delivery of BDNF improved functional recovery associated with fiber tract connectivity restoration, increasing oligodendrocyte markers and remyelination compared to BDNF alone administration in an experimental animal model of white matter injury. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Gutierrez-Fernandez M.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Rodriguez-Frutos B.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Ramos-Cejudo J.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Teresa Vallejo-Cremades M.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | And 3 more authors.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction. Stem cell therapy can promote good recovery from stroke. Several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are safe and effective. However, more information regarding appropriate cell type is needed from animal model. This study was targeted at analyzing the effects in ischemic stroke of acute intravenous (i.v.) administration of allogenic bone marrow- (BM-MSC) and adipose-derived-stem cells (AD-MSC) on functional evaluation results and brain repair markers. Methods. Allogenic MSC (2 × 10§ssup§6 §esup§cells) were administered intravenously 30 minutes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) to rats. Infarct volume and cell migration and implantation were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry. Function was evaluated by the Rogers and rotarod tests, and cell proliferation and cell-death were also determined. Brain repair markers were analyzed by confocal microscopy and confirmed by western blot. Results: Compared to infarct group, function had significantly improved at 24 h and continued at 14 d after i.v. administration of either BM-MSC or AD-MSC. No reduction in infarct volume or any migration/implantation of cells into the damaged brain were observed. Nevertheless, cell death was reduced and cellular proliferation significantly increased in both treatment groups with respect to the infarct group. At 14 d after MSC administration vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), synaptophysin (SYP), oligodendrocyte (Olig-2) and neurofilament (NF) levels were significantly increased while those of glial fiibrillary acid protein (GFAP) were decreased. Conclusions: i.v. administration of allogenic MSC - whether BM-MSC or AD-MSC, in pMCAO infarct was associated with good functional recovery, and reductions in cell death as well as increases in cellular proliferation, neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis markers at 14 days post-infarct. © 2013 Gutiérrez-Fernández et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | University Institute of La Paz and Institute of Biomedical Research Alberto Sols
Type: | Journal: Biomaterials | Year: 2016

Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has been shown to be a promising tool to deliver proteins to select body areas. This study aimed to analyze whether UTMD was able to deliver brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the brain, enhancing functional recovery and white matter repair, in an animal model of subcortical stroke induced by endothelin (ET)-1. UTMD was used to deliver BDNF to the brain 24h after stroke. This technique was shown to be safe, given there were no cases of hemorrhagic transformation or blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage. UTMD treatment was associated with increased brain BDNF levels at 4h after administration. Targeted ultrasound delivery of BDNF improved functional recovery associated with fiber tract connectivity restoration, increasing oligodendrocyte markers and remyelination compared to BDNF alone administration in an experimental animal model of white matter injury.

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