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Anufriieva E.V.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Anufriieva E.V.,Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2015

A small number of copepod species have adapted to an existence in the extreme habitat of hypersaline water. 13 copepod species have been recorded in the hypersaline waters of Crimea (the largest peninsula in the Black Sea with over 50 hypersaline lakes). Summarizing our own and literature data, the author concludes that the Crimean extreme environment is not an exception: copepod species dwell in hypersaline waters worldwide. There are at least 26 copepod species around the world living at salinity above 100; among them 12 species are found at salinity higher than 200. In the Crimea Cletocamptus retrogressus is found at salinity 360×10-3 (with a density of 1 320 individuals/m3) and Arctodiaptomus salinus at salinity 300×10-3 (with a density of 343 individuals/m3). Those species are probably the most halotolerant copepod species in the world. High halotolerance of osmoconforming copepods may be explained by exoosmolyte consumption, mainly with food. High tolerance to many factors in adults, availability of resting stages, and an opportunity of long-distance transportation of resting stages by birds and/or winds are responsible for the wide geographic distribution of these halophilic copepods. © 2015, Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Douglas M.R.,University of Arkansas | Slynko Y.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Dgebuadze Y.Y.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Olenin S.,Klaipeda University | And 11 more authors.
Fisheries | Year: 2015

The Fourth International Symposium on “Alien Species in the Holarctic” was convened September 22–28, 2013, by the Russian Academy of Sciences at the I.D. Papanin Institute for the Biology of Inland Waters (IBIW) on the Volga River in Borok (∼355 km north of Moscow). The Organizing Committee spanned five countries (France, People's Republic of China, Poland, Russian Federation, and the United States), with participants (n=150) across the breadth and depth of the Russian Federation, from countries in proximity to it (i.e., Armenia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine, Siberia, and The Republic of China), and more globally from the United States to Tasmania and Norway to South Africa. This report provides a synopsis of invasive species issues that were discussed at the symposium and, as such, provides an international window for the evaluation of fisheries-related topics in this part of the globe. © 2015, American Fisheries Society. Source

Kravtsova A.V.,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research | Milchakova N.A.,Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas | Frontasyeva M.V.,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Finenko Z.Z.,Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas | Suslin V.V.,Marine Hydrophysical Institute | Kovaleva I.V.,Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas
Oceanology | Year: 2014

The spatial and temporal variability of the chlorophyll (Chl) concentration in the surface water layer of the Black Sea in 1998–2008 has been analyzed using the data obtained by the SeaWiFS satellite sensor. In the deep-sea areas, the seasonal pattern of the Chl concentration is represented by a U-shape curve. The maximal concentrations are observed in the winter-spring and autumn periods, while the minimal, in the summertime. In the northwestern Black Sea, the maximal concentrations are registered in mostly the summer and autumn periods. Pronounced interannual variability is found for the summer concentrations of Chl observed for an 11-year period. After a cold winter, the concentration of Chl in the spring period is 3–5 times higher compared to the mild-winter years. In December–March, a negative correlation between the water temperature and the average Chl concentration is registered. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Source

Piroddi C.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Teixeira H.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Lynam C.P.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Smith C.,Hellenic Center for Marine Research | And 19 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2015

The European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) seeks to achieve, for all European seas, "Good Environmental Status" (GEnS), by 2020. Ecological models are currently one of the strongest approaches used to predicting and understanding the consequences of anthropogenic and climate-driven changes in the natural environment. We assess the most commonly used capabilities of the modelling community to provide information about indicators outlined in the MSFD, particularly on biodiversity, food webs, non-indigenous species and seafloor integrity descriptors. We built a catalogue of models and their derived indicators to assess which models were able to demonstrate: (1) the linkages between indicators and ecosystem structure and function and (2) the impact of pressures on ecosystem state through indicators. Our survey identified 44 ecological models being implemented in Europe, with a high prevalence of those that focus on links between hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry, followed by end-to-end, species distribution/habitat suitability, bio-optical (remote sensing) and multispecies models. Approximately 200 indicators could be derived from these models, the majority of which were biomass and physical/hydrological/chemical indicators. Biodiversity and food webs descriptors, with ∼49% and ∼43% respectively, were better addressed in the reviewed modelling approaches than the non-indigenous species (0.3%) and sea floor integrity (∼8%) descriptors. Out of 12 criteria and 21 MSFD indicators relevant to the abovementioned descriptors, currently only three indicators were not addressed by the 44 models reviewed. Modelling approaches showed also the potential to inform on the complex, integrative ecosystem dimensions while addressing ecosystem fundamental properties, such as interactions between structural components and ecosystems services provided, despite the fact that they are not part of the MSFD indicators set. The cataloguing of models and their derived indicators presented in this study, aim at helping the planning and integration of policies like the MSFD which require the assessment of all European Seas in relation to their ecosystem status and pressures associated and the establishment of environmental targets (through the use of indicators) to achieve GEnS by 2020. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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