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Bucharest, Romania

Lupan I.,Babes - Bolyai University | Popescu O.,Babes - Bolyai University | Popescu O.,Institute of Biology Bucharest
Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology | Year: 2012

Biodegradation is a long process and microorganism communities responsible for this process are complex, mostly composed mainly of fungi and bacteria. Some of these communities, depending on the substrate and micro climatic conditions, may be associated with cyanobacteria, algae and Archaea. Determination of the diversity of microorganisms that inhabit different art works is of major importance for restoration and conservation. The methods used in studying these communities in recent decades can be summarized to a few techniques (DGGE, cultured and uncultured methods, 16S rDNA clone library analysis etc), but these may underestimate the diversity of communities compared to new techniques available (next generation sequencings methods) that provide more close to reality results. In this paper we tried to show the research findings in last few decades that point microorganism communities that populate the world heritage objects and we support the need to investigate these communities using new next generation sequencing methods. Even if conservation can be extended at millennia, preserving for centuries the works of art is a win for world culture.

Iancu L.,Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History | Sahlean T.,Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History | Sahlean T.,University of Bucharest | Purcarea C.,Institute of Biology Bucharest
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2016

The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is affected by several factors including the cause of death, the place where the body lay after death, and the weather conditions during decomposition. Given the climatic differences among biogeographic locations, the understanding of necrophagous insect species biology and ecology is required when estimating PMI. The current experimental model was developed in Romania during the warm season in an outdoor location. The aim of the study was to identify the necrophagous insect species diversity and dynamics, and to detect the bacterial species present during decomposition in order to determine if their presence or incidence timing could be useful to estimate PMI. The decomposition process of domestic swine carcasses was monitored throughout a 14-wk period (10 July-10 October 2013), along with a daily record of meteorological parameters. The chronological succession of necrophagous entomofauna comprised nine Diptera species, with the dominant presence of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819) (Calliphoridae), while only two Coleoptera species were identified, Dermestes undulatus (L. 1758) and Creophilus maxillosus Brahm 1970. The bacterial diversity and dynamics from the mouth and rectum tissues, and third-instar dipteran larvae were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments. Throughout the decomposition process, two main bacterial chronological groups were differentiated, represented by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. Twenty-six taxa from the rectal cavity and 22 from the mouth cavity were identified, with the dominant phylum in both these cavities corresponding to Firmicutes. The present data strengthen the postmortem entomological and microbial information for the warm season in this temperate-continental area, as well as the role of microbes in carcass decomposition. © The Authors 2015.

Sarchizian I.,Ovidius University | Ardelean I.I.,Ovidius University | Ardelean I.I.,Institute of Biology Bucharest
12th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference and EXPO - Modern Management of Mine Producing, Geology and Environmental Protection, SGEM 2012 | Year: 2012

This report presents the use of frequency of dividing cells (FDC) method to calculate the growth rate in populations of filamentous (heterocystous and nonheterocystous) cyanobacteria isolated from sulphurous mesothermal spring from Obanul Mare (Mangalia).Septa were counted on heat - fixed preparations of cyanobacteria (300 cells per sample) stained with 0.02% crystal violet, using digital image analysis using two software CellC and ImageJ to clearly observe the shape of the dividing cells form filaments allowing us to obtain accurate data: for heterocyst forming strain (IS-H) the maximum growth rate on BG0 in light is 0.039 h-1 and for non heterocyst forming strain (FG-11) the maximum growth rate on BG11 in light is 0.057 h-1. © SGEM2012 All Rights Reserved by the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM Published by STEF92 Technology Ltd.

Vicol I.,Institute of Biology Bucharest
Environmental Engineering and Management Journal | Year: 2014

The assessment of heavy metals pollution using Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. as an indicator species was performed for forests from Bucharest metropolitan area. This study aims to provide original data concerning environmental quality in relation to the intensity of car traffic. Metal concentrations in Xanthoria parietina measured in sites adjacent to roads were compared with those measured at a distance from traffic. The results show significant correlations between the Cd and Cr concentrations and the distance from Bucharest. The Pb, Cr, Cd and Zn concentrations are insignificant correlated with the number of vehicles. Within the studied area, decreasing heavy metal concentration in Xanthoria parietina on sampled trees is clearly associated with increasing distance from the nearest roads. It was found that Pb and Zn concentrations are higher especially in the Pustnicul and Bolintin-Deal forests indicating that values of Pb and Zn concentrations in Xanthoria parietina could be used as indicators of environmental pollution for Pustnicul and Bolintin Deal forests. © Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iasi. All rights reserved.

Iancu L.,Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History | Carter D.O.,Chaminade University of Honolulu | Junkins E.N.,Chaminade University of Honolulu | Purcarea C.,Institute of Biology Bucharest
Forensic Science International | Year: 2015

Considering the biogeographical characteristics of forensic entomology, and the recent development of forensic microbiology as a complementary approach for post-mortem interval estimation, the current study focused on characterizing the succession of necrophagous insect species and bacterial communities inhabiting the rectum and mouth cavities of swine (. Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses during a cold season outdoor experiment in an urban natural environment of Bucharest, Romania. We monitored the decomposition process of three swine carcasses during a 7 month period (November 2012-May 2013) corresponding to winter and spring periods of a temperate climate region. The carcasses, protected by wire cages, were placed on the ground in a park type environment, while the meteorological parameters were constantly recorded. The succession of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera taxa was monitored weekly, both the adult and larval stages, and the species were identified both by morphological and genetic characterization. The structure of bacterial communities from swine rectum and mouth tissues was characterized during the same time intervals by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. We observed a shift in the structure of both insect and bacterial communities, primarily due to seasonal effects and the depletion of the carcass. A total of 14 Diptera and 6 Coleoptera species were recorded on the swine carcasses, from which Calliphora vomitoria and C. vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Necrobia violacea (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Thanatophilus rugosus (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were observed as predominant species. The first colonizing wave, primarily Calliphoridae, was observed after 15 weeks when the temperature increased to 13. °C. This was followed by Muscidae, Fanniidae, Anthomyiidae, Sepsidae and Piophilidae. Families belonging to Coleoptera Order were observed at week 18 when temperatures raised above 18. °C, starting with Cleridae, Silphidae, and followed by Histeridae, Staphylinidae and Dermestidae. For bacteria, 53 taxa belonging to phyla Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria), Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were identified from the mouth cavity (36 OTUs) and rectum cavity (17 OTUs). These shifts in insect and bacterial communities indicated their complementary role in the carcass decomposition process. These results represent the first forensic entomological and microbiological survey in Romania. This study shows the value of forensic entomology as a tool for forensic investigations in Romania and neighboring areas with similar biogeographical characteristics. Moreover, this study represents a novel approach for understanding taphonomy and estimating post-mortem interval during cold season by combining entomological and microbiological methods. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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