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Bakalin V.A.,Institute of Biology and Soil Science
Annales Botanici Fennici | Year: 2010

The Kuril Island Chain, which extends 1200 km in a northeast direction from Hokkaido (Japan) towards the shores of the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Federation), unites the boreal flora of the southern Kamchatka with the temperate flora enriched with subtropical elements from the lower elevation belts of Hokkaido. The gradual shift in the liverwort flora from the north to the south is analysed and described. It is shown that the border between East Asian and Circumboreal floristic regions (based on an analysis of liverworts) should run either along the Izmena Straight between Hokkaido and Kunashir Islands, or along the Ekaterina Straight between Kunashir and Iturup Islands, the former being a better-justified position. © 2010 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board.

The North American hepatic flora includes 24 species of Lophozia distributed among five subgenera and five species of Schistochilopsis. Lophozia pacifica Bakalin is described as new to science, based on retuse leaves clearly decurrent on the dorsal side of the stem and fusiform-cylindrical perianth. Lophozia sect. Heteromorphae R. M. Schust. and L. sect. Savicziae Bakalin are synonymized with L. sect. Lophozia. Lophozia sect. Longidentatae R. M. Schust. is synonymized with Lophozia sect. Excisae R. M. Schust. New combinations are proposed: Lophozia subg. Obtusifolium (H. Buch) Bakalin comb. nov., Lophozia subg. Sudeticae (Schljakov) Bakalin comb. nov., Schistochilopsis sect. Heterogemmae (Jørg.) Bakalin comb. nov., Schistochilopsis incisa var. opacifolia (Culmann) Bakalin comb. nov. © 2011 The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

Fibiger M.,Molbechs Alle 49 | Han H.L.,Northeast Forestry University | Kononenko V.S.,Institute of Biology and Soil Science
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Five new species and one subspecies of the family Micronoctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea) (Bellulia bibella sp. n., Parachrostia pura sp. n., Tactusa virga sp. n., T. flexus sp. n., T. brevis sp. n., and T. discrepans yunnanensis ssp. n.) are described from South China (provinces Yunnan and Guizhou). Three species, Mimachrostia fasciata Sugi, 1982, T. discrepans Fibiger, 2010 and T. pars Fibiger, 2010 are reported from China for the first time. An updated checklist of the Micronoctuidae from China, including Taiwan is presented consisting of 28 species and 2 two subspecies. Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press.

Volis S.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Shulgina I.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Zaretsky M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Koren O.,Institute of Biology and Soil Science
Heredity | Year: 2011

Populations of predominantly selfing plant species often show spatial genetic structure but little is known whether epistatic gene interactions are spatially structured. To detect a possible epistatic effect and a spatial scale at which it operates, we created artificial crosses between plants spanning a range of fixed distances from 1 to 400 m in three populations of wild barley. The self-pollinated and crossed progeny (F1) and two generations of segregated progeny (F2 and F3) were tested in experimentally simulated population environments for relative performance (RP). The measured fitness traits included number of seeds, total seed weight and seed germination. For any of these traits, there was no association between RP of F1, F2 and F3 plants and either pairwise kinship coefficients or crossing distance. In contrast, in all three populations, we found lower seed viability of outcrossed as compared with self-pollinated genotypes in the first generation of segregation. However, in the F3 generation this outbreeding effect disappeared in the two populations and greatly decreased in the third population. For seed production, heterosis in F1 and outbreeding depression in F2 were observed only in the population with unusually high number of heterozygotes. Our findings support the view that in selfing species a spatial mosaic of various locally abundant genotypes represents not randomly fixed combinations of alleles but the co-adapted gene complexes that were sieved by selection, while heterozygotes are characteristic for the transient phase of this process, when segregation and purging of maladaptive genotypes have not yet occurred. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Yamamoto S.,Kobe University | Beljaev E.A.,Institute of Biology and Soil Science | Sota T.,Kyoto University
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Winter geometrid moths belonging to the genus Inurois comprise nine species that reproduce during early winter, three species that reproduce in late winter, and polymorphic species with genetically diverged early and late winter populations that co-occur widely across the species' range. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that differences in reproductive timing resulted in allochronic reproductive isolation between sympatric populations. In the present study, to assess the evolutionary pattern of reproductive timing within the genus, we determined the phylogenetic relationships among species using nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences. Nuclear gene tree showed that reproductive season shifts occurred independently in four of 13 divergence events. In two divergence events, allochronic sister lineages were formed in sympatry, suggesting that the segregation of the reproductive season was associated with diversification in the genus Inurois. We also found that the mitochondrial gene tree was quite different from the nuclear gene tree and that mitochondrial introgression may have occurred in a few cases. Although it remains unclear whether early and late winter species actually have hybridized with each other and how strong or stable is the reproductive isolation provided by the reproductive season segregation, our study illuminates the potential importance of allochronic isolation in the diversification process of the genus Inurois. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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