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Gobernador Ingeniero Valentín Virasoro, Argentina

Korner G.,University of Zurich | Korner G.,Affiliated with the Neuroscience Center Zurich | Korner G.,Affiliated with the Childrens Research Center | Noain D.,University of Zurich | And 24 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2015

Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyses the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to l-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines. Mutations in the TH gene encoding tyrosine hydroxylase are associated with the autosomal recessive disorder tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency, which manifests phenotypes varying from infantile parkinsonism and DOPA-responsive dystonia, also termed type A, to complex encephalopathy with perinatal onset, termed type B. We generated homozygous Th knock-in mice with the mutation Th-p.R203H, equivalent to the most recurrent human mutation associated with type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency (TH-p.R233H), often unresponsive to l-DOPA treatment. The Th knock-in mice showed normal survival and food intake, but hypotension, hypokinesia, reduced motor coordination, wide-based gate and catalepsy. This phenotype was associated with a gradual loss of central catecholamines and the serious manifestations of motor impairment presented diurnal fluctuation but did not improve with standard l-DOPA treatment. The mutant tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme was unstable and exhibited deficient stabilization by catecholamines, leading to decline of brain tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in the Th knock-in mice. In fact the substantia nigra presented an almost normal level of mutant tyrosine hydroxylase protein but distinct absence of the enzyme was observed in the striatum, indicating a mutation-associated mislocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal pathway. This hypomorphic mouse model thus provides understanding on pathomechanisms in type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency and a platform for the evaluation of novel therapeutics for movement disorders with loss of dopaminergic input to the striatum. © 2015 The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved.

Gonzalez C.R.,Maimonides University | Vallcaneras S.S.,National University of San Luis | Calandra R.S.,Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine | Gonzalez Calvar S.I.,Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine | Gonzalez Calvar S.I.,University of Buenos Aires
Cytokine | Year: 2013

Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine that modulates cell homeostasis. In Leydig cells, TGF-β1 exerts stimulatory and inhibitory effect depending on the type I receptor involved in the signaling pathway. The aim of the present work was to study the signaling mechanisms and the intermediates involved in the action of TGF-β1 on TM3 Leydig cell proliferation in the presence or absence of progesterone. The MTT assay showed that the presence of progesterone in the culture media lead to a proliferative effect that was blocked by Ru 486, an inhibitor of progesterone receptor; and ALK-5 did not participate in this effect. TGF-β1 (1. ng/ml) increased the expression of p15 (an inhibitor of cell cycle) in TM3 Leydig cells, and this effect was blocked by progesterone (1 μM). The expression of PCNA presented a higher increase in the cell cultured with TGF-β1 plus progesterone than in cells cultured only with TGF-β1.Progesterone induced the gene expression of endoglin, a cofactor of TGF-β1 receptor that leads to a stimulatory signaling pathway, despite of the absence of progesterone response element in endoglin gene. In addition, the presence of progesterone induced the gene expression of egr-1 and also KLF14, indicating that this steroid channels the signaling pathway into a non-canonical mechanism. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the proliferative action of TGF-β1 involves endoglin. This co-receptor might be induced by KLF14 which is probably activated by progesterone. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mori Sequeiros Garcia M.,University of Buenos Aires | Gomez N.V.,University of Buenos Aires | Gorostizaga A.,University of Buenos Aires | Acquier A.,University of Buenos Aires | And 4 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Luteinizing hormone (LH) activates ERK1/2, MAP kinases (MAPKs) necessary for its action on steroidogenesis and cell proliferation, and also induces MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which rapidly dephosphorylates nuclear ERK1/2. MKP-3 is a cytoplasmic ERK-phosphatase up-regulated by proliferative stimuli. MKP-3 also dephosphorylates transcription factor FOXO1, promoting its transport to the nucleus. Here we analyzed MKP-3 expression in MA-10 Leydig cells and demonstrated that LH receptor (LHR) activation with human gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and an analog of its second messenger, 8Br-cAMP, up-regulates MKP-3 by transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. It is known that FOXO1 drives the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21. Since the activation of this transcription factor by MKP-3 has been reported, we assessed the effect of shRNA against MKP-3 on p21mRNA levels. 8Br-cAMP increased these levels (2-fold at 2. h) and MKP-3 down-regulation reduced this effect. Our work demonstrates that LH/hCG tightly up-regulates MKP-3 which in turn, dephosphorylates ERK1/2 and drives p21 expression. These events could contribute to counteract hormonal action on cell proliferation. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Mori Sequeiros Garcia M.,University of Buenos Aires | Gorostizaga A.,University of Buenos Aires | Brion L.,Karolinska University Hospital | Gonzalez-Calvar S.I.,Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2015

In Leydig cells, LH and cAMP promote ERK1/2 activation and MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) induction. MKP-1 up-regulation, which involves post-translational modifications such as ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation, reduces ERK1/2 phosphorylation as well as Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR) protein expression and steroidogenesis. As LH- and cAMP-promoted StAR transcription requires the induction of Nur77, product of Nr4a1 gene, we analyzed the roles of ERK1/2 and MKP-1 in 8Br-cAMP-mediated Nr4a1 expression in MA-10 Leydig cells. Pharmacological blockade of ERK1/2 activation partially reduced the 8Br-cAMP-mediated increase in both Nr4a1 messenger levels and promoter activity. MKP-1 knock-down increased 8Br-cAMP-induced promoter activity, while its over-expression produced the opposite effect. It is concluded that Nr4a1 induction is dependent on ERK1/2 and that MKP-1 negatively regulates this induction. Experiments based on the over-expression of MKP-1 mutated forms revealed that MKP-1 half life is determined by post-translational modifications in ERK-consensus sites, a regulation that modulates the effect of MKP-1 on Nr4a1 expression. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Gomez N.V.,University of Buenos Aires | Gorostizaga A.B.,University of Buenos Aires | Garcia M.M.M.S.,University of Buenos Aires | Brion L.,Karolinska University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2013

MAPKs such as ERK1/2 are dephosphorylated, and consequently inactivated, by dual specificity phosphatases (MKPs). In Leydig cells, LH triggers ERK1/2 phosphorylation through the action of protein kinase A. We demonstrate that, in MA-10 Leydig cells, LH receptor activation by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) up-regulates MKP-2, a phosphatase that dephosphorylates ERK1/2, among other MAPKs. After 2 hours, hCG and 8-bromo-cAMP (8Br-cAMP) significantly increased MKP-2 mRNA levels (3-fold), which declined to basal levels after 6 hours. MKP-2 protein accumulation exhibited a similar kinetic profile. In cells transiently expressing flag-MKP-2 protein, hCG/8Br-cAMP stimulation promoted the accumulation of the chimera (2.5-fold after 3 h of stimulation). Pharmacologic and biochemical approaches showed that the accumulation of flag-MKP-2 involves a posttranslational modification that increases MKP-2 half-life. MKP-2 down regulation by a short hairpin RNA (MKP-2 shRNA) raised the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 reached by 8Br-cAMP stimulation. This effect was evident after 180 min of stimulation, which suggests that MKP-2 down-regulates the late phase of cAMP-induced ERK1/2 activity. Also, MKP-2 down-regulation by MKP-2 shRNA increased the stimulatory effect of 8Br-cAMP on both promoter activity and messenger levels of CYP11A1, which encodes for the steroidogenic enzyme P450scc and is induced by LH/hCG through protein kinase A and ERK1/2 activities. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that LH/hCG tightly regulates MKP-2 expression, which modulates the induction of CYP11A1 by 8Br-cAMP. MKP-2 up-regulation might control ERK1/2 activity in a specific temporal frame to modulate the expression of a finite repertory of ERK-dependent genes. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.

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