Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure

Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure

Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

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Berger N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Dubreucq B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Roudier F.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure | Dubos C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lepiniec L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Plant Cell | Year: 2011

LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) is a master regulator of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. In vegetative organs, LEC2 expression is negatively regulated by Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2) that catalyzes histone H3 Lys 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and plays a crucial role in developmental phase transitions. To characterize the cis-regulatory elements involved in the transcriptional regulation of LEC2, molecular dissections and functional analyses of the promoter region were performed in vitro, both in yeast and in planta. Two cis-activating elements and a cis-repressing element (RLE) that is required for H3K27me3 marking were characterized. Remarkably, insertion of the RLE cis-element into pF3H, an unrelated promoter, is sufficient for repressing its transcriptional activity in different tissues. Besides improving our understanding of LEC2 regulation, this study provides important new insights into the mechanisms underlying H3K27me3 deposition and PRC2 recruitment at a specific locus in plants. © American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Segalen M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Johnston C.A.,University of Oregon | Martin C.A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dumortier J.G.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure | And 6 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2010

The Frizzled receptor and Dishevelled effector regulate mitotic spindle orientation in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but how Dishevelled orients the mitotic spindle is unknown. Using the Drosophila S2 cell " induced polarity" system, we find that Dishevelled cortical polarity is sufficient to orient the spindle and that Dishevelled's DEP domain mediates this function. This domain binds a C-terminal domain of Mud (the Drosophila NuMA ortholog), and Mud is required for Dishevelled-mediated spindle orientation. In Drosophila, Frizzled-Dishevelled planar cell polarity (PCP) orients the sensory organ precursor (pI) spindle along the anterior-posterior axis. We show that Dishevelled and Mud colocalize at the posterior cortex of pI, Mud localization at the posterior cortex requires Dsh, and Mud loss-of-function randomizes spindle orientation. During zebrafish gastrulation, the Wnt11-Frizzled-Dishevelled PCP pathway orients spindles along the animal-vegetal axis, and reducing NuMA levels disrupts spindle orientation. Overall, we describe a Frizzled-Dishevelled-NuMA pathway that orients division from Drosophila to vertebrates. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Ding F.,University Paris Diderot | Ding F.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure | Manosas M.,University Paris Diderot | Manosas M.,University of Barcelona | And 9 more authors.
Nature Methods | Year: 2012

High-throughput, low-cost DNA sequencing has emerged as one of the challenges of the postgenomic era. Here we present the proof of concept for a single-molecule platform that allows DNA identification and sequencing. In contrast to most present methods, our scheme is not based on the detection of the fluorescent nucleotides but on DNA hairpin length. By pulling on magnetic beads tethered by a DNA hairpin to the surface, the molecule can be unzipped. In this open state it can hybridize with complementary oligonucleotides, which transiently block the hairpin rezipping when the pulling force is reduced. By measuring from the surface to the bead of a blocked hairpin, one can determine the position of the hybrid along the molecule with nearly single-base precision. Our approach can be used to identify a DNA fragment of known sequence in a mix of various fragments and to sequence an unknown DNA fragment by hybridization or ligation. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Greenberg M.V.C.,University of California at Los Angeles | Greenberg M.V.C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Deleris A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Deleris A.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013

DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that is associated with transcriptional repression of transposable elements and protein-coding genes. Conversely, transcriptionally active regulatory regions are strongly correlated with histone 3 lysine 4 di- and trimethylation (H3K4m2/m3). We previously showed that Arabidopsis thaliana plants with mutations in the H3K4m2/m3 demethylase JUMONJI 14 (JMJ14) exhibit a mild reduction in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) that is associated with an increase in H3K4m2/m3 levels. To determine whether this incomplete RdDM reduction was the result of redundancy with other demethylases, we examined the genetic interaction of JMJ14 with another class of H3K4 demethylases: LYSINE-SPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE 1-LIKE 1 and LYSINE-SPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE 1-LIKE 2 (LDL1 and LDL2). Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses reveal that both families cooperate to maintain RdDM patterns. ChIP-seq experiments show that regions that exhibit an observable DNA methylation decrease are co-incidental with increases in H3K4m2/m3. Interestingly, the impact on DNA methylation was stronger at DNA-methylated regions adjacent to H3K4m2/m3-marked protein-coding genes, suggesting that the activity of H3K4 demethylases may be particularly crucial to prevent spreading of active epigenetic marks. Finally, RNA sequencing analyses indicate that at RdDM targets, the increase of H3K4m2/m3 is not generally associated with transcriptional de-repression. This suggests that the histone mark itself-not transcription-impacts the extent of RdDM. © 2013 Greenberg et al.

Deleris A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Deleris A.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure | Stroud H.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bernatavichute Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2012

Dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9m2) and trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27m3) are two hallmarks of transcriptional repression in many organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, H3K27m3 is targeted by Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins and is associated with silent protein-coding genes, while H3K9m2 is correlated with DNA methylation and is associated with transposons and repetitive sequences. Recently, ectopic genic DNA methylation in the CHG context (where H is any base except G) has been observed in globally DNA hypomethylated mutants such as met1, but neither the nature of the hypermethylated loci nor the biological significance of this epigenetic phenomenon have been investigated. Here, we generated high-resolution, genome-wide maps of both H3K9m2 and H3K27m3 in wild-type and met1 plants, which we integrated with transcriptional data, to explore the relationships between these two marks. We found that ectopic H3K9m2 observed in met1 can be due to defects in IBM1-mediated H3K9m2 demethylation at some sites, but most importantly targets H3K27m3-marked genes, suggesting an interplay between these two silencing marks. Furthermore, H3K9m2/DNA-hypermethylation at these PcG targets in met1 is coupled with a decrease in H3K27m3 marks, whereas CG/H3K9m2 hypomethylated transposons become ectopically H3K27m3 hypermethylated. Our results bear interesting similarities with cancer cells, which show global losses of DNA methylation but ectopic hypermethylation of genes previously marked by H3K27m3. © 2012 Deleris et al.

Ten Hoopen R.,University of Cambridge | Cepeda-Garcia C.,University of Cambridge | Cepeda-Garcia C.,Centro Andaluz Of Biologia Molecular Y Medicina Regenerativa Cabimer | Fernandez-Arruti R.,University of Cambridge | And 5 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2012

Background: Budding yeast is a unique model to dissect spindle orientation in a cell dividing asymmetrically. In yeast, this process begins with the capture of pole-derived astral microtubules (MTs) by the polarity determinant Bud6p at the cortex of the bud in G 1. Bud6p couples MT growth and shrinkage with spindle pole movement relative to the contact site. This activity resides in N-terminal sequences away from a domain linked to actin organization. Kip3p (kinesin-8), a MT depolymerase, may be implicated, but other molecular details are essentially unknown. Results: We show that Bud6p and Kip3p play antagonistic roles in controlling the length of MTs contacting the bud. The stabilizing role of Bud6p required the plus-end-tracking protein Bim1p (yeast EB1). Bim1p bound Bud6p N terminus, an interaction that proved essential for cortical capture of MTs in vivo. Moreover, Bud6p influenced Kip3p dynamic distribution through its effect on MT stability during cortical contacts via Bim1p. Coupling between Kip3p-driven depolymerization and shrinkage at the cell cortex required Bud6p, Bim1p, and dynein, a minus-end-directed motor helping tether the receding plus ends to the cell cortex. Validating these findings, live imaging of the interplay between dynein and Kip3p demonstrated that both motors decorated single astral MTs with dynein persisting at the plus end in association with the site of cortical contact during shrinkage at the cell cortex. Conclusions: Astral MT shrinkage linked to Bud6p involves its direct interaction with Bim1p and the concerted action of two MT motors - Kip3p and dynein. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

Boulin T.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure | Boulin T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Boulin T.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Hobert O.,Columbia University
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

This review aims to provide an overview of the technologies which make the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans an attractive genetic model system. We describe transgenesis techniques and forward and reverse genetic approaches to isolate mutants and clone genes. In addition, we discuss the new possibilities offered by genome engineering strategies and next-generation genome analysis tools. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Stigloher C.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure | Stigloher C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Stigloher C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Zhan H.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2011

The active zone (AZ) of chemical synapses is a specialized area of the presynaptic bouton in which vesicles fuse with the plasmamembrane and release neurotransmitters. Efficient signaling requires synaptic vesicles (SVs) to be recruited, primed, and retained at the AZ, in close proximity to voltage-dependent calcium channels that are activated during presynaptic depolarization. The electron-dense specializations at the AZ might provide a molecular platform for the spatial coordination of these different processes.Toinvestigate this hypothesis, we examined high-resolution three-dimensional models of Caenorhabditis elegans cholinergic neuromuscular junctions generated by electron tomography. First, we found that SVs are interconnected within the bouton by filaments similar to those described in vertebrates. Second, we resolved the three-dimensional structure of the dense projection centered in the AZ. The dense projection is a more complex structure than previously anticipated, with filaments radiating from a core structure that directly contact SVs in the interior of the bouton as well as SVs docked at the plasma membrane. Third, we investigated the functional correlate of these contacts by analyzing mutants disrupting two key AZ proteins: UNC-10/RIM and SYD-2/liprin. In both mutants, the number of contacts between SVs and the dense projection was significantly reduced. Similar to unc-10 mutants, the dependence of SV fusion on extracellular calcium concentration was exacerbated in syd-2 mutants when compared with the wild type. Hence, we propose that the dense projection ensures proper coupling of primed vesicles with calcium signaling by retaining them at the AZ via UNC-10/RIM and SYD-2/liprin-dependent mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 the authors.

Lickwar C.R.,Carolina Center for the Genome science | Mueller F.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure | Mueller F.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Lieb J.D.,Carolina Center for the Genome science
Nature Protocols | Year: 2013

Competition chromatin immunoprecipitation (competition ChIP) enables experimenters to measure protein-DNA dynamics at a single locus or across the entire genome, depending on the detection method. Competition ChIP relies on a cell containing two copies of a single DNA-associated factor, with each copy of the factor differentially epitope tagged. One of the copies is expressed constitutively and the second is induced as a competitor. The ratio of isoforms associated with discrete genomic locations is detected by ChIP-on-chip (ChIP-chip) or ChIP-sequencing (ChIP-seq). The rate at which the resident isoform of the protein is replaced by the competitor at each binding location enables the calculation of residence time for that factor at each site of interaction genome wide. Here we provide a detailed protocol for designing and performing competition ChIP experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which takes ∼5 d to complete (not including strain production and characterizations, which may take as long as 6 months). Included in this protocol are guidelines for downstream bioinformatic analysis to extract residence times throughout the genome. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Delgehyr N.,University of Cambridge | Delgehyr N.,Institute Of Biologie Of Lecole Normale Superieure | Rangone H.,University of Cambridge | Fu J.,University of Cambridge | And 5 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2012

Klp10A is a kinesin-13 of Drosophila melanogaster that depolymerizes cytoplasmic microtubules [1]. In interphase, it promotes microtubule catastrophe [2-4]; in mitosis, it contributes to anaphase chromosome movement by enabling tubulin flux [1, 5]. Here we show that Klp10A also acts as a microtubule depolymerase on centriolar microtubules to regulate centriole length. Thus, in both cultured cell lines and the testes, absence of Klp10A leads to longer centrioles that show incomplete 9-fold symmetry at their ends. These structures and associated pericentriolar material undergo fragmentation. We also show that in contrast to mammalian cells where depletion of CP110 leads to centriole elongation [6], in Drosophila cells it results in centriole length diminution that is overcome by codepletion of Klp10A to give longer centrioles than usual. We discuss how loss of centriole capping by CP110 might have different consequences for centriole length in mammalian [6-8] and insect cells and also relate these findings to the functional interactions between mammalian CP110 and another kinesin-13, Kif24, that in mammalian cells regulates cilium formation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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