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Mizzotti C.,University of Milan | Mendes M.A.,University of Milan | Caporali E.,University of Milan | Schnittger A.,Institute Of Biologie Moleculaire Des Plantes Du Center National Of La Recherche Scientifique | And 4 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

The haploid generation of flowering plants develops within the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. After fertilization, the maternal seed coat develops in a coordinated manner with formation of the embryo and endosperm. In the arabidopsis bsister (abs) mutant, the endothelium, which is the most inner cell layer of the integuments that surround the haploid embryo sac, does not accumulate proanthocyanidins and the cells have an abnormal morphology. However, fertility is not affected in abs single mutants. SEEDSTICK regulates ovule identity redundantly with SHATTERPROOF 1 (SHP1) and SHP2 while a role in the control of fertility was not reported previously. Here we describe the characterization of the abs stk double mutant. This double mutant develops very few seeds due to both a reduced number of fertilized ovules and seed abortions later during development. Morphological analysis revealed a total absence of endothelium in this double mutant. Additionally, massive starch accumulation was observed in the embryo sac. The phenotype of the abs stk double mutant highlights the importance of the maternal-derived tissues, particularly the endothelium, for the development of the next generation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Schulze S.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Schafer B.N.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Parizotto E.A.,Institute Of Biologie Moleculaire Des Plantes Du Center National Of La Recherche Scientifique | Parizotto E.A.,University of Oxford | And 2 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2010

Meristems of seed plants continuously produce new cells for incorporation into maturing tissues. A tightly controlled balance between cell proliferation in the center and cell differentiation at the periphery of the shoot meristem maintains its integrity. Here, we describe the role of three GRAS genes, named LOST MERISTEMS genes, in shoot apical meristem maintenance and axillary meristem formation. Under short photoperiods, the lom1 lom2 and lom1 lom2 lom3 mutants have arrested meristems characterized by an over-proliferation of meristematic cells and loss of polar organization. They also show early arrest of axillary meristem development and formation of ectopic meristematic cell clusters within the stem. LOM1 and LOM2 transcripts accumulate in the peripheral and basal zones of the SAM and in vascular strands. We show that LOM1 and LOM2 promote cell differentiation at the periphery of shoot meristems and help to maintain their polar organization. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Kuhn K.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Kuhn K.,Institute Of Biologie Moleculaire Des Plantes Du Center National Of La Recherche Scientifique | Obata T.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | Feher K.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2015

Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is central to cellular NAD+recycling and accounts for approximately 40% of mitochondrial ATP production. To understand how complex I function impacts respiration and plant development, we isolated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines that lack complex I activity due to the absence of the catalytic subunit NDUFV1 (for NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase flavoprotein1) and compared these plants withndufs4 (for NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase Fe-S protein4) mutants possessing trace amounts of complex I. Unlike ndufs4 plants, ndufv1 lines were largely unable to establish seedlings in the absence of externally supplied sucrose. Measurements of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis revealed that compared with ndufv1, the complex I amounts retained by ndufs4 did not increase mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation capacities. No major differences were seen in the mitochondrial proteomes, cellular metabolomes, or transcriptomes between ndufv1 and ndufs4. The analysis of fluxes through the respiratory pathway revealed that in ndufv1, fluxes through glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were dramatically increased compared with ndufs4, which showed near wild-type-like fluxes. This indicates that the strong growth defects seen for plants lacking complex I originate from a switch in the metabolic mode of mitochondria and an up-regulation of respiratory fluxes. Partial reversion of these phenotypes when traces of active complex I are present suggests that complex I is essential for plant development and likely acts as a negative regulator of respiratory fluxes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Source


De Luis A.,Institute Of Biologie Moleculaire Des Plantes Du Center National Of La Recherche Scientifique | De Luis A.,University of Valencia | Markmann K.,University of Aarhus | Cognat V.,Institute Of Biologie Moleculaire Des Plantes Du Center National Of La Recherche Scientifique | And 7 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

Legumes overcome nitrogen shortage by developing root nodules in which symbiotic bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen in exchange for host-derived carbohydrates and mineral nutrients. Nodule development involves the distinct processes of nodule organogenesis, bacterial infection, and the onset of nitrogen fixation. These entail profound, dynamic gene expression changes, notably contributed to by microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we used deep-sequencing, candidate-based expression studies and a selection of Lotus japonicus mutants uncoupling different symbiosis stages to identify miRNAs involved in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Induction of a noncanonical miR171 isoform, which targets the key nodulation transcription factor Nodulation Signaling Pathway2, correlates with bacterial infection in nodules. A second candidate, miR397, is systemically induced in the presence of active, nitrogen-fixing nodules but not in that of noninfected or inactive nodule organs. It is involved in nitrogen fixation-related copper homeostasis and targets a member of the laccase copper protein family. These findings thus identify two miRNAs specifically responding to symbiotic infection and nodule function in legumes. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved. Source

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