Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Jacobsen M.W.,University of Aarhus | Pujolar J.M.,University of Aarhus | Gilbert M.T.P.,Copenhagen University | Moreno-Mayar J.V.,Copenhagen University | And 5 more authors.
Heredity | Year: 2014

Processes leading to speciation in oceanic environments without obvious physical barriers remain poorly known. European and American eel (Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata) spawn in partial sympatry in the Sargasso Sea. Larvae are advected by the Gulf Stream and other currents towards the European/North African and North American coasts, respectively. We analyzed 104 mitogenomes from the two species along with mitogenomes of other Anguilla and outgroup species. We estimated divergence time between the two species to identify major events involved in speciation. We also considered two previously stated hypotheses: one where the ancestral species was present in only one continent but was advected across the Atlantic by ocean current changes and another where population declines during Pleistocene glaciations led to increasing vicariance, facilitating speciation. Divergence time was estimated to ∼3.38 Mya, coinciding with the closure of the Panama Gateway that led to reinforcement of the Gulf Stream. This could have advected larvae towards European/North African coasts, in which case American eel would be expected to be the ancestral species. This scenario could, however, not be unequivocally confirmed by analyses of dN/dS, nucleotide diversity and effective population size estimates. Extended bayesian skyline plots showed fluctuations of effective population sizes and declines during glaciations, and thus also lending support to the importance of vicariance during speciation. There was evidence for positive selection at the ATP6 and possibly ND5 genes, indicating a role in speciation. The findings suggest an important role of ocean current changes in speciation of marine organisms.Heredity advance online publication, 28 May 2014; doi:10.1038/hdy.2014.44. Source


Jacobsen M.W.,University of Aarhus | Pujolar J.M.,University of Aarhus | Bernatchez L.,Institute Of Biologie Integrative Et Des Systemes Ibis | Munch K.,University of Aarhus | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2014

The importance of speciation-with-geneflow scenarios is increasingly appreciated. However, the specific processes and the resulting genomic footprints of selection are subject to much discussion. We studied the genomics of speciation between the two panmictic, sympatrically spawning sister species; European (Anguilla anguilla) and American eel (A. Rostrata). Divergence is assumed to have initiated more than 3 Ma, and although low gene flow still occurs, strong postzygotic barriers are present. Restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing identified 328 300 SNPs for subsequent analysis. However, despite the presence of 3757 strongly differentiated SNPs (FST > 0.8), sliding window analyses of FST showed no larger genomic regions (i.e. hundreds of thousands to millions of bases) of elevated differentiation. Overall FST was 0.041, and linkage disequilibrium was virtually absent for SNPs separated by more than 1000 bp. We suggest this to reflect a case of genomic hitchhiking, where multiple regions are under directional selection between the species. However, low but biologically significant gene flow and high effective population sizes leading to very low genetic drift preclude accumulation of strong background differentiation. Genes containing candidate SNPs for positive selection showed significant enrichment for gene ontology (GO) terms relating to developmental processes and phosphorylation, which seems consistent with assumptions that differences in larval phase duration and migratory distances underlie speciation. Most SNPs under putative selection were found outside coding regions, lending support to emerging views that noncoding regions may be more functionally important than previously assumed. In total, the results demonstrate the necessity of interpreting genomic footprints of selection in the context of demographic parameters and life-history features of the studied species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Haas B.,Laval University | Bonifait L.,Laval University | Vaillancourt K.,Laval University | Charette S.J.,Institute Of Biologie Integrative Et Des Systemes Ibis | And 3 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent. Multilocus sequence typing allowed dividing S. suis serotype 2 into sequence types (STs). The three major STs of S. suis serotype 2 from North America are 1 (most virulent), 25 (intermediate virulence) and 28 (less virulent). Although the presence of DNase activity in S. suis has been previously reported, little data is available. The aim of this study was to investigate DNase activity in S. suis according to STs, to characterize the activity and gene, and to provide evidence for a potential role in virulence. Results: We showed that ST1 and ST28 strains exhibited DNase activity that was absent in ST25 strains. The lack of activity in ST25 isolates was associated with a 14-bp deletion resulting in a shifted reading frame and a premature stop codon. The DNase of S. suis P1/7 (ST1) was cell-associated and active on linear DNA. A DNase-deficient mutant of S. suis P1/7 was found to be less virulent in an amoeba model. Stimulation of macrophages with the DNase mutant showed a decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-9 compared to the parental strain. Conclusions: This study further expands our knowledge of S. suis DNase and its potential role in virulence. © 2014 Haas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Jacobsen M.W.,University of Aarhus | Pujolar J.M.,University of Aarhus | Gilbert M.T.,Copenhagen University | Moreno-Mayar J.V.,Copenhagen University | And 4 more authors.
Heredity | Year: 2014

Processes leading to speciation in oceanic environments without obvious physical barriers remain poorly known. European and American eel (Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata) spawn in partial sympatry in the Sargasso Sea. Larvae are advected by the Gulf Stream and other currents towards the European/North African and North American coasts, respectively. We analyzed 104 mitogenomes from the two species along with mitogenomes of other Anguilla and outgroup species. We estimated divergence time between the two species to identify major events involved in speciation. We also considered two previously stated hypotheses: one where the ancestral species was present in only one continent but was advected across the Atlantic by ocean current changes and another where population declines during Pleistocene glaciations led to increasing vicariance, facilitating speciation. Divergence time was estimated to ∼3.38 Mya, coinciding with the closure of the Panama Gateway that led to reinforcement of the Gulf Stream. This could have advected larvae towards European/North African coasts, in which case American eel would be expected to be the ancestral species. This scenario could, however, not be unequivocally confirmed by analyses of dN/dS, nucleotide diversity and effective population size estimates. Extended bayesian skyline plots showed fluctuations of effective population sizes and declines during glaciations, and thus also lending support to the importance of vicariance during speciation. There was evidence for positive selection at the ATP6 and possibly ND5 genes, indicating a role in speciation. The findings suggest an important role of ocean current changes in speciation of marine organisms. Source


Naruzawa E.S.,Institute Of Biologie Integrative Et Des Systemes Ibis | Bernier L.,Institute Of Biologie Integrative Et Des Systemes Ibis
Fungal Biology | Year: 2014

Dutch elm disease (DED) fungi exhibit yeast-mycelium dimorphism both in planta and invitro. However, previously published data on the transition between these two growth forms invitro were mostly obtained from a single strain. We examined the effect of six factors on yeast-mycelium dimorphism invitro in ten strains of Ophiostoma ulmi, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and Ophiostoma himal-ulmi. Nitrogen sources, calcium, and yeast extract, altogether with inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (caffeine) and dioxygenases (propyl gallate and salicylic acid) were tested in defined culture media. Morphological response to manipulation of several of these factors varied according to the strain of Ophiostoma being analysed. Responses ranged from no statistical differences in morphological transitions to stimulation or reversion of yeast-mycelium dimorphism with the treatments that were tested. These results suggest that different mechanisms and pathways operate in the control of the yeast-mycelium transition in DED pathogens. Oxylipins could be involved in the yeast-to-mycelium transition, since the addition of a dioxygenase inhibitor, salicylic acid, reduced mycelium production in all strains that were tested. © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Source

Discover hidden collaborations