Jammes F.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Jammes F.,Pomona College |
Leonhardt N.,Institute Of Biologie Environnementale Et Of Biotechnologie |
Tran D.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
And 11 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2014
Faced with declining soil-water potential, plants synthesize abscisic acid (ABA), which then triggers stomatal closure to conserve tissue moisture. Closed stomates, however, also create several physiological dilemmas. Among these, the large CO2 influx required for net photosynthesis will be disrupted. Depleting CO2 in the plant will in turn bias stomatal opening by suppressing ABA sensitivity, which then aggravates transpiration further. We have investigated the molecular basis of how C3 plants resolve this H 2O-CO2 conflicting priority created by stomatal closure. Here, we have identified in Arabidopsis thaliana an early drought-induced spermidine spermine-N1-acetyltransferase homolog, which can slow ABA-mediated stomatal closure. Evidence from genetic, biochemical and physiological analyses has revealed that this protein does so by acetylating the metabolite 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP), thereby turning on the latter's intrinsic activity. Acetylated DAP triggers plasma membrane electrical and ion transport properties in an opposite way to those by ABA. Thus in adapting to low soil-water availability, acetyl-DAP could refrain stomates from complete closure to sustain CO2 diffusion to photosynthetic tissues. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
PubMed | University of Turku, University of Seville and Institute Of Biologie Environnementale Et Of Biotechnologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014
Flavodiiron proteins are known to have crucial and specific roles in photoprotection of photosystems I and II in cyanobacteria. The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 contains, besides the four flavodiiron proteins Flv1A, Flv2, Flv3A, and Flv4 present in vegetative cells, two heterocyst-specific flavodiiron proteins, Flv1B and Flv3B. Here, we demonstrate that Flv3B is responsible for light-induced O2 uptake in heterocysts, and that the absence of the Flv3B protein severely compromises the growth of filaments in oxic, but not in microoxic, conditions. It is further demonstrated that Flv3B-mediated photosynthetic O2 uptake has a distinct role in heterocysts which cannot be substituted by respiratory O2 uptake in the protection of nitrogenase from oxidative damage and, thus, in an efficient provision of nitrogen to filaments. In line with this conclusion, the flv3B strain has reduced amounts of nitrogenase NifHDK subunits and shows multiple symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in the filaments. The apparent imbalance of cytosolic redox state in flv3B heterocysts also has a pronounced influence on the amounts of different transcripts and proteins. Therefore, an O2-related mechanism for control of gene expression is suggested to take place in heterocysts.
Ennajdaoui H.,Joseph Fourier University |
Ennajdaoui H.,Sinsheimer Laboratories |
Vachon G.,Joseph Fourier University |
Giacalone C.,CEA Cadarache Center |
And 7 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2010
Tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) glandular trichomes make an attractive target for isoprenoid metabolic engineering because they produce large amounts of one type of diterpenoids, α- and β-cembratrien-diols. This article describes the establishment of tools for metabolic engineering of tobacco trichomes, namely a transgenic line with strongly reduced levels of diterpenoids in the exudate and the characterization of a trichome specific promoter. The diterpene-free tobacco line was generated by silencing the major tobacco diterpene synthases, which were found to be encoded by a family of four highly similar genes (NsCBTS-2a, NsCBTS-2b, NsCBTS-3 and NsCBTS-4), one of which is a pseudogene. The promoter regions of all four CBTS genes were sequenced and found to share over 95% identity between them. Transgenic plants expressing uidA under the control of the NsCBTS-2a promoter displayed a specific pattern of GUS expression restricted exclusively to the glandular cells of the tall secretory trichomes. A series of sequential and internal deletions of the NsCBTS-2a promoter led to the identification of two cis-acting regions. The first, located between positions -589 to -479 from the transcription initiation site, conferred a broad transcriptional activation, not only in the glandular cells, but also in cells of the trichome stalk, as well as in the leaf epidermis and the root. The second region, located between positions -279 to -119, had broad repressor activity except in trichome glandular cells and is mainly responsible for the specific expression pattern of the NsCBTS-2a gene. These results establish the basis for the identification of trans-regulators required for the expression of the CBTS genes restricted to the secretory cells of the glandular trichomes. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Deletion of Proton Gradient Regulation 5 (PGR5) and PGR5-Like 1 (PGRL1) proteins promote sustainable light-driven hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii due to increased PSII activity under sulfur deprivation
Steinbeck J.,University of Munster |
Nikolova D.,University of Munster |
Weingarten R.,University of Munster |
Johnson X.,Institute Of Biologie Environnementale Et Of Biotechnologie |
And 12 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015
Continuous hydrogen photo-production under sulfur deprivation was studied in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii pgr5 pgrl1 double mutant and respective single mutants. Under medium light conditions, the pgr5 exhibited the highest performance and produced about eight times more hydrogen than the wild type, making pgr5 one of the most efficient hydrogen producer reported so far. The pgr5 pgrl1 double mutant showed an increased hydrogen burst at the beginning of sulfur deprivation under high light conditions, but in this case the overall amount of hydrogen produced by pgr5 pgrl1 as well as pgr5 was diminished due to photo-inhibition and increased degradation of PSI. In contrast, the pgrl1 was effective in hydrogen production in both high and low light. Blocking photosynthetic electron transfer by DCMU stopped hydrogen production almost completely in the mutant strains, indicating that the main pathway of electrons toward enhanced hydrogen production is via linear electron transport. Indeed, PSII remained more active and stable in the pgr mutant strains as compared to the wild type. Since transition to anaerobiosis was faster and could be maintained due to an increased oxygen consumption capacity, this likely preserves PSII from photo-oxidative damage in the pgr mutants. Hence, we conclude that increased hydrogen production under sulfur deprivation in the pgr5 and pgrl1 mutants is caused by an increased stability of PSII permitting sustainable light-driven hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. © 2015 Steinbeck, Nikolova, Weingarten, Johnson, Richaud, Peltier, Hermann, Magneschi and Hippler.
Baltz A.,Institute Of Biologie Environnementale Et Of Biotechnologie |
Baltz A.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Baltz A.,Aix - Marseille University |
Dang K.-V.,Institute Of Biologie Environnementale Et Of Biotechnologie |
And 18 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014
Biological conversion of solar energy into hydrogen is naturally realized by some microalgae species due to a coupling between the photosynthetic electron transport chain and a plastidial hydrogenase. While promising for the production of clean and sustainable hydrogen, this process requires improvement to be economically viable. Two pathways, called direct and indirect photoproduction, lead to sustained hydrogen production in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures. The indirect pathway allows an efficient time-based separation of O2 and H2 production, thus overcoming the O2 sensitivity of the hydrogenase, but its activity is low. With the aim of identifying the limiting step of hydrogen production, we succeeded in overexpressing the plastidial type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDA2). We report that transplastomic strains overexpressing NDA2 show an increased activity of nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones (PQs). While hydrogen production by the direct pathway, involving the linear electron flow from photosystem II to photosystem I, was not affected by NDA2 overexpression, the rate of hydrogen production by the indirect pathway was increased in conditions, such as nutrient limitation, where soluble electron donors are not limiting. An increased intracellular starch was observed in response to nutrient deprivation in strains overexpressing NDA2. It is concluded that activity of the indirect pathway is limited by the nonphotochemical reduction of PQs, either by the pool size of soluble electron donors or by the PQ-reducing activity of NDA2 in nutrient-limited conditions. We discuss these data in relation to limitations and biotechnological improvement of hydrogen photoproduction in microalgae. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.