Institute of Biological Problems of the North

Magadan, Russia

Institute of Biological Problems of the North

Magadan, Russia
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Li B.,Northeast Forestry University | Wu D.,Northeast Forestry University | Malyarchuk B.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2014

We undertook the first sequencing of the entire mitogenome of Martes martes. The genome is 16,486 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region. The total base composition of the mitogenome is 31.9% for A, 27. 6% for C, 25.8% for T and 14.7% for G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage do not differ significantly from other martens. This mitogenome sequence data might be useful for phylogenetic and systematic analyses within the genus Martes. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.


Barter M.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Zhuang X.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Wang X.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Cao L.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Bird Conservation International | Year: 2014

The Endangered Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamatus is amongst the most threatened of sea ducks (Mergini), with an estimated population of c.4,600 individuals based on a recent population estimate on the breeding areas in Primorye, Far East Russia, China and DPR Korea. For the first time, we present published and unpublished data on the wintering distribution in China and smaller numbers in Korea. We report 156 sightings during 2000-2011, together with 11 records of wintering sites using geolocation devices, from 16 provinces in China, with greatest concentrations in Jiangxi Province (97 reports from 18 sites). Both sources of data suggest some degree of winter site fidelity to fast-flowing clear water rivers 50-350 m wide, with riffles, islands or sand banks in hilly/mountainous areas with low levels of human disturbance. Surveys located a maximum of 370-770 birds, 8-17% of the estimated total population, confirming our poor knowledge of the species' wintering distribution. There is an urgent need to define the wintering range of this species which is widely dispersed and nowhere abundant, but is threatened everywhere by dam construction, sand and gravel extraction, industrial and domestic pollution and fishing that threaten the integrity of the winter habitat. This also raises important conservation questions about how to protect such a species that is not highly concentrated and may require catchment scale nature conservation actions to effectively safeguard its current distribution. Copyright © 2013 BirdLife International.


PubMed | Evolutionary Biology group, Mongolian Academy of Medical science, North-Eastern Federal University, University of Cambridge and 12 more.
Type: Historical Article | Journal: PLoS genetics | Year: 2015

The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages. These groups have dispersed across a vast area, including Siberia, Northwest China, Central Asia, East Europe, the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, and Afghanistan. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. Previous genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic languages expansion. We addressed the genetic origin of 373 individuals from 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data. In agreement with the elite dominance model of language expansion most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors. However, western Turkic peoples sampled across West Eurasia shared an excess of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent (IBD) with populations from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia (SSM), an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities. While SSM matching IBD tracts (> 1cM) are also observed in non-Turkic populations, Turkic peoples demonstrate a higher percentage of such tracts (p-values 0.01) compared to their non-Turkic neighbors. Finally, we used the ALDER method and inferred admixture dates (~9th-17th centuries) that overlap with the Turkic migrations of the 5th-16th centuries. Thus, our results indicate historical admixture among Turkic peoples, and the recent shared ancestry with modern populations in SSM supports one of the hypothesized homelands for their nomadic Turkic and related Mongolic ancestors.


Andreev A.V.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Hafner F.,University of Vienna
Ornithological Science | Year: 2011

Density, movements, daily activity and behaviour of a wintering population of Siberian Grouse Falcipennis falcipennis was studied on radio-tagged birds in the Lower Amur region, 100 km North of Komsomol'sk (Khabarovsk region). For this species, the wintering period lasts 7-7.5 months - from October through April. Best wintering habitats occur in the middle and upper parts of slopes with tracts of mature spruce forests, dying stems and small openings surrounded by spruce-fir undergrowth. From January through March adult cocks occupy areas of 19.5±13.9 ha, females 26.5±17.3 ha; subadult cocks 128±70.5 ha, and subadult hens 151±22.9 ha. Although typically occurring in groups of 2-3 birds, by the end of winter, flock size increases to 4-6; winter aggregations averaged 3.06 birds, but up to 48% of encounters were with single individuals. Winter conditions do not interrupt numerous social contacts within the local population. The birds elaborate cryptic behaviour, its unwillingness to land on snow in daytime and the various precautions it takes to avoid disturbance, clearly indicate that the pressure of predation is a constant force with which the species has to cope. © The Ornithological Society of Japan 2011.


Malyarchuk B.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Derenko M.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Denisova G.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

We assessed phylogeny of the Siberian salamander (Salamandrella keyserlingii, Dybowski, 1870), the most northern ectothermic, terrestrial vertebrate in Eurasia, by sequence analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes in 26 specimens from different localities (China, Khabarovsk region, Sakhalin, Yakutia, Magadan region, Chukotka, Kamchatka, Ural, European part of Russia). In addition, a complete mitochondrial genome of the Schrenck salamander, Salamandrella schrenckii, was determined for the first time. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the entire mtDNA genomes of S. keyserlingii demonstrates that two haplotype clades, AB and C, radiated about 1.4. million. years ago (Mya). Bayesian skyline plots of population size change through time show an expansion around 250. thousand. years ago (kya) and then a decline around the Last Glacial Maximum (25. kya) with subsequent restoration of population size. Climatic changes during the Quaternary period have dramatically affected the population genetic structure of the Siberian salamanders. In addition, complete mtDNA sequence analysis allowed us to recognize that the vast area of Northern Eurasia was colonized only by the Siberian salamander clade C1b during the last 150. kya. Meanwhile, we were unable to find evidence of molecular adaptation in this clade by analyzing the whole mitochondrial genomes of the Siberian salamanders. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Malyarchuk B.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Derenko M.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Mikhailova E.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Denisova G.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North
Parasitology International | Year: 2014

Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 ( cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers- Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled ( N. tumidus+. N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Malyarchuk B.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Derenko M.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Berman D.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Perkova M.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

We assessed the phylogeographic pattern of Siberian salamander (Salamandrella keyserlingii, Dybowski, 1870), which appear to be the most northern ectothermic, terrestrial vertebrate in Northern Eurasia, by sequence analysis of a 611-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 159 specimens from different localities (Khabarovsk region, Sakhalin, Yakutia, Magadan region, Chukotka, Kamchatka and others). The data revealed that cytochrome b lineages of S. keyserlingii are divided into haplogroups A, B and C. Haplogroup A and B sequences are widespread in the Far East region, whereas haplogroup C consisting of several phylogenetic clusters (C1, C2, C3) is present in the all range of S. keyserlingii. Among them, cluster C3 appears to be specific for Sakhalin; most likely, it has arisen in situ in this island, with the entry time of the founder mtDNA estimated at about 0.4 MY. Analysis of cytochrome b gene variation by using different neutrality tests (including those based on KA/KS-ratio) has shown that differences between haplogroups were statistically insignificant, thus suggesting selective neutrality. However, analysis of amino acid changes allowed us to detect a signature of molecular adaptation, which might have led to appearance of adaptive cytochrome b variants in haplogroup C, originating most likely at the end of Eopleistocene (about 0.64 MY based on the haplogroup C divergence level). It seems probable that this adaptive mechanism could promote subsequent populating of new regions. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Malyarchuk B.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Derenko M.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Denisova G.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North
Gene | Year: 2014

We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300. thousand. years ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~. 50-140. kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40. kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21. kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22. kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~. 23-50. kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Berman D.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Alfimov A.,Institute of Biological Problems of the North | Kuzmina S.,University of Alberta | Kuzmina S.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2011

Studies of invertebrates from steppe patches in the tundra and taiga zones of Beringia provide additional evidence that these areas could be relict steppes. A number of insect species common to both modern relict steppes and fossil Beringian insect faunal assemblages have been found. These provide important information on the moisture and temperature preferences of some of the surviving members of Pleistocene steppe-tundra insect communities. The most significant species of West Beringian insects are weevils in the genus Stephanocleonus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), indicators of thermophytic steppe, and the pill beetle Morychus viridis (Coleoptera, Byrrhidae), the indicator of hemicryophytic steppe. The East Beringian invertebrate population of relict steppe is substantially different. Fossil evidence suggests that biotic exchange between the two parts of Beringia was limited during the Pleistocene; populations of steppe insects did not move across the Bering Land Bridge (BLB), while tundra species had more flexibility. The tundra environment reconstructed for the Pleistocene BLB should have facilitated amphi-beringian distributions for most tundra invertebrate species, but apparently only a few species achieved this. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Institute of Biological Problems of the North
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gene | Year: 2014

We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300 thousandyears ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~50-140 kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40 kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22 kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~23-50 kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka.

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