Institute of Biodiversity Conservation IBC

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Institute of Biodiversity Conservation IBC

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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Belehu T.,University of Pretoria | Belehu T.,Institute of Biodiversity Conservation IBC | Hammes P.S.,University of Pretoria
Tropical Agriculture | Year: 2010

Appropriate plant establishment techniques are essential for successful crop growth and yield. Cutting characteristics are important factors that may affect yield and yield components. The effects of cultivar (Kudadie, Bareda and Awasa-83), planting position (horizontal and vertical), type of planting material (terminal vine cuttings with and without leaves) and cutting length (20, 25 and 30 cm) on the number and yield of tubers were studied in Ethiopia at Awasa and Melkassa. The objective of the study was to identify cutting characteristics for better plant establishment and consequently for higher tuber yields. Cultivar Kudadie had the highest total and marketable tuber yield and cultivar Awasa-83 the lowest, at both locations. The horizontal method of planting resulted in the highest total and marketable tuber yield at locations. Cutting length (20, 25 and 30 cm) did not affect tuber number and yield, except for the number and yield of small tubers at both locations. The 30 cm vine cuttings produced the highest number of small tubers at both locations. Generally tuber numbers tended to increase when the leaves were retained on the cuttings. © 2010 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).


Yosef T.,Haramaya University | Mengistu U.,Haramaya University | Solomon A.,Institute of Biodiversity Conservation IBC | Mohammed Y.K.,Haramaya University | Kefelegn K.,Haramaya University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to assess camel and cattle population dynamics and its implication on species conservation, and livelihood diversification of pastoralists. Cattle and camel population dynamics, and household incomes were quantified using herd histories and interviews of pastoralist households that inhabit Afar, Oromiya, and Somali National Regional States (NRS) of Ethiopia. From each NRS two-four districts were selected based on camel and cattle population and accessibility and from each district 25-32 pastoralist households were selected using stratified random sampling by considering wealth status. Thus, a total of 200 interviewees were involved in the study. Respondents said that pastoralists faced five to seven drought periods during the past 30 years and lost 45-70% of their cattle in each of the periods. As a consequence, the pastoralists developed considerable interest in camel production and livelihood diversification as a mitigation strategy to climate change. Camel population increased during the past 20 years by 10, 20, 25, 15, 25 and more than 200% respectively in Gode, Jijiga, Shinille, Mille, Amibara and Borena Districts. On the contrary cattle population decreased from 50-70% in most of the study districts during the past 20 years. Currently, 13.8, 25, 10.4 and 7.8% of the interviewed households in Gode, Jijiga, Shinille and Borena Districts, respectively do not possess cattle. The study showed that livelihood diversification is practiced by about 15-35, 20-25 and 5-10% of pastoralists in Somali, Borena and Afar, respectively. All interviewed pastoralists favor increment of camel. All interviewed pastoralists in Jijiga, Mille and Borena Districts have a plan to reduce cattle number in the herd in the future. Most of the interviewed pastoralist in Gode and Shinille Districts favor reduction of cattle number in the herd. The majority of pastoralists in Amibara District started crossing the local cattle with other indigenous Kereyu cattle breed type as a mitigation strategy to climate change, since the later is believed to be better adapted to the arid environment. Pastoralists and agro-pastoralists are engaged in off farm activities such as selling firewood and charcoal, and petty trading to diversify income. Accordingly 15-20, 20-25 and 5% of pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in Somali (Gode, Jijiga and Shinille), Borena (Yabelo and Moyale) and Afar (Amibara and Mille), respectively are engaged in different off farm activities. In general, the results showed that cattle population is decreasing from time to time, while camel population is in increasing trend in arid and semi-arid areas as a result of the combined effects of pastoralist needs and the impact of climate change, which could position the indigenous cattle breed at risk in the near future. Therefore, appropriate restocking, quick identification and implementation of conservation strategies of pastoral cattle breeds, and creating access to on farm and off farm activities through strategic projects in the region are important to diversify pastoral household income and sustainably utilize cattle breeds.


Yosef T.,Haramaya University | Kefelegn K.,Haramaya University | Mohammed Y.K.,Haramaya University | Mengistu U.,Haramaya University | And 3 more authors.
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize indigenous camel ecotypes and to assess phenotypic diversity and relationship of camel populations in Ethiopia. A total of 494 heads of camels were investigated for phenotypic characterization. The study involved Jijiga, Liben, Gelleb, Hoor and Shinille from Somali as well as Amibara and Mille camel populations from Afar national regional states, which are the major camel rearing areas. The results showed that average barrel and heart girths of Liben camel population were significantly (p<0.05) larger than the remaining camel populations. Gelleb camels were significantly (p<0.05) superior for morphological variables particularly height at shoulder, chest depth, chest width and hip width to other camel populations examined. Females of Amibara camel population recorded significantly (p<0.05) lower values for traits mentioned above as compared to other camel populations. The greatest morphological divergence was observed between Mille and Shinille followed by the difference between Amibara and Shinille camel populations. The least morphological divergence was detected between Hoor and Gelleb followed by that between Amibara and Mille camels in aggregate gender. Quantitative and qualitative study indicated that Jijiga and Hoor camel populations are milk type whereas Liben and Gelleb camel populations are meat type. The principal component analysis showed that body height traits and body height together with body shape traits explained most of the shared variability in female and male camel populations, respectively. The canonical analysis identified two canonical variables to be significant (p<0.0001) and sufficient to classify all camels studied. Combined differences among all morphological variables categorized these seven Ethiopian camel populations into five major camel groups. Therefore the findings from this study can be used for the description of body conformation, characterization, improvement and conservation of various camel populations in the country.


Balemie K.,Institute of Biodiversity Conservation IBC | Singh R.K.,Indian Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
Environmental Management | Year: 2012

In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat (Triticum turgidum) and tef (Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


PubMed | Institute of Biodiversity Conservation IBC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental management | Year: 2012

In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat (Triticum turgidum) and tef (Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of improved and farmers varieties. Of the farmers varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers varieties were suggested.

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