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Kenarova A.,Sofia University | Encheva M.,Sofia University | Chipeva V.,Sofia University | Chipev N.,Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research | And 2 more authors.
Polar Biology | Year: 2013

Terrestrial food webs of Antarctica are simple and dominated by microorganisms. Soil bacteria play an important role in nutrient cycling, yet little is known about their capacity to utilize different carbon sources and to participate in site nutrient turnover. Biolog EcoPlate™ was applied to study the catabolic activity and physiological diversity of bacteria inhabiting the soil of moss, vascular plants, and fell field habitats from Livingston Island, Antarctica. Additionally, the number of oligotrophic and copiotrophic bacteria was counted by the agar plate method. Results indicated a lack of site-specific distribution of bacterial abundance, in contrast to bacterial catabolic activity and community level physiological profiles. Community level physiological profiles revealed a common capacity of soil bacteria to intensively utilize polyols, which are cryoprotectants widely produced by Antarctic organisms, as well as site-specific phenolic compounds (vegetated habitats), amino acids/amines (moss habitats), carbohydrates and carboxylic acids (fell field habitat). It was concluded that the physiology of soil bacteria is habitat specific concerning both the rate of catabolic activity and pattern of carbon source utilization. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Six mature Branchiobdella hexodonta GRUBER 1883 were found in the gill chamber of a male Austropotamobius torrentium (SCHRANCK 1803) from Albania (Pukë county, Fushë Arrëz, Lumi i Fani i Madh), a sample collected by Z. Erõss, Z. Fehér, J. Kontschán, D. Murányi and deposited in the Natural History Museum in Budapest, Hungary. This is the first report on a member of genus Branchiobdella in Albania. An overview on the distribution of B. hexodonta in its area and, in particular, on Balkan Peninsula is also presented. Source

Berkov S.,Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research | Ivanov I.,University of Food Technologies | Georgiev V.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Georgiev V.,Florida A&M University | And 3 more authors.
Engineering in Life Sciences | Year: 2014

The Amaryllidaceae alkaloid galanthamine (Gal) is a long-acting, selective, reversible, and competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of early- to mid-stage Alzheimer's disease, poliomyelitis, and other neurological diseases. Currently, Gal is produced by extraction from plants such as daffodils (Narcissus cultivar Carlthon), snowflake (Leucojum aestivum), "red-tubed lily" (Lycoris radiata), and Ungernia victoria, and alternatively by chemical synthesis. Due to the increased demand by the generic pharmaceutical companies and the limited availability of plant sources, the biosynthesis of Gal by plant in vitro systems has been considered as an alternative approach for its sustainable production. The present article reviews the state of the art of in vitro Gal biosynthesis including growth regulators, medium components, culture conditions, elicitation, and bioreactor systems. It may be used as a starting point for further studies in this area leading to a progress in biotechnological production of this valuable alkaloid. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Source

Contarini M.,University of Sassari | Luciano P.,University of Sassari | Pilarska D.,Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research | Pilarska D.,Czech University of Life Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2013

Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae were collected in 20 oak stands in Sardinia to evaluate mortality factors. Collected larvaewere reared in the laboratory on artificial diet until they died or pupated. Larval mortality ranged from 17.5 to 100%. Parasitoidsthat killed larvae and pupae were identified and the remaining larvae were evaluated for presence of pathogens. Of the five parasitoids species recorded, the dipteran tachinid Blepharipa pratensis Meigen was the most frequently observed and caused up to 57.5% mortality. The viral pathogen LdMNPV caused mortality up to 37.5%. We recorded the presence of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin as well as the microsporidium Nosema portugal Maddox et Vavra, which was previously identified as Nosema lymantriae Weiser. The fungal entomopathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu et Soper was not collected from the host populations surveyed. We suggest that an inoculative introduction of this pathogen into Sardinia could potentially reduce the need to control gypsy moth populations with microbial pesticides, which are expensive to apply and are toxic to many non-target organisms. Source

Kuznetsova V.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Grozeva S.M.,Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research | Nokkala S.,University of Turku | Nokkala C.,University of Turku
ZooKeys | Year: 2011

The Cimicomorpha is one of the largest and highly diversified infraorders of the Heteroptera. Tis group is also highly diversified cytogenetically and demonstrates a number of unusual cytogenetic characters such as holokinetic chromosomes; m-chromosomes; multiple sex chromosome systems; post-reduction of sex chromosomes in meiosis; variation in the presence/absence of chiasmata in spermatogenesis; different types of achiasmate meiosis. We present here a review of essential cytogenetic characters of the Cimico-morpha and outline the chief objectives and goals of future investigations in the field. © V. G. Kuznetsova et al. Source

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