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PubMed | Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Royal Botanic Gardens, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences and 67 more.
Type: | Journal: Biodiversity data journal | Year: 2015

Reliable taxonomy underpins communication in all of biology, not least nature conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem resources. The flexibility of taxonomic interpretations, however, presents a serious challenge for end-users of taxonomic concepts. Users need standardised and continuously harmonised taxonomic reference systems, as well as high-quality and complete taxonomic data sets, but these are generally lacking for non-specialists. The solution is in dynamic, expertly curated web-based taxonomic tools. The Pan-European Species-directories Infrastructure (PESI) worked to solve this key issue by providing a taxonomic e-infrastructure for Europe. It strengthened the relevant social (expertise) and information (standards, data and technical) capacities of five major community networks on taxonomic indexing in Europe, which is essential for proper biodiversity assessment and monitoring activities. The key objectives of PESI were: 1) standardisation in taxonomic reference systems, 2) enhancement of the quality and completeness of taxonomic data sets and 3) creation of integrated access to taxonomic information.This paper describes the results of PESI and its future prospects, including the involvement in major European biodiversity informatics initiatives and programs.


Berkov S.,Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research | Ivanov I.,University of Food Technologies | Georgiev V.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Georgiev V.,Florida A&M University | And 3 more authors.
Engineering in Life Sciences | Year: 2014

The Amaryllidaceae alkaloid galanthamine (Gal) is a long-acting, selective, reversible, and competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of early- to mid-stage Alzheimer's disease, poliomyelitis, and other neurological diseases. Currently, Gal is produced by extraction from plants such as daffodils (Narcissus cultivar Carlthon), snowflake (Leucojum aestivum), "red-tubed lily" (Lycoris radiata), and Ungernia victoria, and alternatively by chemical synthesis. Due to the increased demand by the generic pharmaceutical companies and the limited availability of plant sources, the biosynthesis of Gal by plant in vitro systems has been considered as an alternative approach for its sustainable production. The present article reviews the state of the art of in vitro Gal biosynthesis including growth regulators, medium components, culture conditions, elicitation, and bioreactor systems. It may be used as a starting point for further studies in this area leading to a progress in biotechnological production of this valuable alkaloid. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.


Draganova S.,Plant Protection Institute | Pilarska D.,Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research | Takov D.,Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research | Doychev D.,University of Forestry
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2011

Carbohydrate utilization profiles of ten isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuillemin were studied and compared to assist in determining their phenotypic characterization. Isolates were obtained in pure cultures from dead individuals of several forest pests collected from different regions in Bulgaria. Studies on utilization profiles were based on the acidification of twenty carbohydrates.The results indicate that sucrose, maltose and trehalose were assimilated at a high degree compared to esculin, arabinose and dulcitol. According to the results of a cluster analysis of the carbohydrate utilization profiles, the B. bassiana isolates were divided into two larger groupings. All isolates in the first larger cluster were obtained from the coleopteran insects - Stenomax aeneus, Ips typographus, I. sexdentatus and Dryocoetes autographus. Isolates from the other cluster were obtained from the lepidopteran larvae of Thaumetopoea pityocampa and Lymantria dispar, and from an adult of the coleopteran species Hylurgops palliatus. We determined that each B. bassiana isolate exhibited a different and specific carbohydrate utilization profile but differences at the p-level < 0.05 were significant among some of them. The most distinguishable was the isolate 560Bb obtained from T. pityocampa. Differences between the isolate 560Bb and the other nine B. bassiana isolates were highly significant at the p-level < 0.005. Isolate 433Bb obtained from a dead adult of I. typographus was significantly different from five of the studied isolates at the p-level < 0.05.


PubMed | University of Alicante, National Genetic Laboratory, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2015

The phylogenetic placement of Jekelius brullei (Jekel, 1866) and J. punctulatus (Jekel, 1866) (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) was assessed using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to discern contrasting nomenclatural views provided by Lpez-Coln (1996) and the Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera (Lbl et al. 2006). Our results support both the monophyletic and classification status of the genus Jekelius Lpez-Coln, 1989; and the splitting of the genus into the subgenera Jekelius Lpez-Coln, 1989 and Reitterius Lpez-Coln, 1996. The basal phylogenetic placement of these two species also suggests an oriental origin for Jekelius within the western Palaearctic region. Finally, we include a potential distributional map of Jekelius (Reitterius) punctulatus (Jekel, 1866) based on an exhaustive search of occurrence data.


Kuznetsova V.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Grozeva S.M.,Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem research | Nokkala S.,University of Turku | Nokkala C.,University of Turku
ZooKeys | Year: 2011

The Cimicomorpha is one of the largest and highly diversified infraorders of the Heteroptera. Tis group is also highly diversified cytogenetically and demonstrates a number of unusual cytogenetic characters such as holokinetic chromosomes; m-chromosomes; multiple sex chromosome systems; post-reduction of sex chromosomes in meiosis; variation in the presence/absence of chiasmata in spermatogenesis; different types of achiasmate meiosis. We present here a review of essential cytogenetic characters of the Cimico-morpha and outline the chief objectives and goals of future investigations in the field. © V. G. Kuznetsova et al.


PubMed | Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Ojcow National Park and ul. J. Matejki 13 m. 45
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2016

First records of Diodontus medius Dahlbom, 1844 and D. insidiosus Spooner, 1938 from Poland, and of D. handlirschi Kohl, 1888 from Bulgaria and Montenegro are provided. An illustrated key for the identification of Central and Eastern European species of the genus Diodontus is given.


Kenarova A.,Sofia University | Encheva M.,Sofia University | Chipeva V.,Sofia University | Chipev N.,Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research | And 2 more authors.
Polar Biology | Year: 2013

Terrestrial food webs of Antarctica are simple and dominated by microorganisms. Soil bacteria play an important role in nutrient cycling, yet little is known about their capacity to utilize different carbon sources and to participate in site nutrient turnover. Biolog EcoPlate™ was applied to study the catabolic activity and physiological diversity of bacteria inhabiting the soil of moss, vascular plants, and fell field habitats from Livingston Island, Antarctica. Additionally, the number of oligotrophic and copiotrophic bacteria was counted by the agar plate method. Results indicated a lack of site-specific distribution of bacterial abundance, in contrast to bacterial catabolic activity and community level physiological profiles. Community level physiological profiles revealed a common capacity of soil bacteria to intensively utilize polyols, which are cryoprotectants widely produced by Antarctic organisms, as well as site-specific phenolic compounds (vegetated habitats), amino acids/amines (moss habitats), carbohydrates and carboxylic acids (fell field habitat). It was concluded that the physiology of soil bacteria is habitat specific concerning both the rate of catabolic activity and pattern of carbon source utilization. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Six mature Branchiobdella hexodonta GRUBER 1883 were found in the gill chamber of a male Austropotamobius torrentium (SCHRANCK 1803) from Albania (Pukë county, Fushë Arrëz, Lumi i Fani i Madh), a sample collected by Z. Erõss, Z. Fehér, J. Kontschán, D. Murányi and deposited in the Natural History Museum in Budapest, Hungary. This is the first report on a member of genus Branchiobdella in Albania. An overview on the distribution of B. hexodonta in its area and, in particular, on Balkan Peninsula is also presented.


Clark N.J.,Griffith University | Clark N.J.,Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research | Wells K.,Griffith University | Dimitrov D.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2016

Experimental work increasingly suggests that non-random pathogen associations can affect the spread or severity of disease. Yet due to difficulties distinguishing and interpreting co-infections, evidence for the presence and directionality of pathogen co-occurrences in wildlife is rudimentary. We provide empirical evidence for pathogen co-occurrences by analysing infection matrices for avian malaria (Haemoproteus and Plasmodium spp.) and parasitic filarial nematodes (microfilariae) in wild birds (New Caledonian Zosterops spp.). Using visual and genus-specific molecular parasite screening, we identified high levels of co-infections that would have been missed using PCR alone. Avian malaria lineages were assigned to species level using morphological descriptions. We estimated parasite co-occurrence probabilities, while accounting for environmental predictors, in a hierarchical multivariate logistic regression. Co-infections occurred in 36% of infected birds. We identified both positively and negatively correlated parasite co-occurrence probabilities when accounting for host, habitat and island effects. Two of three pairwise avian malaria co-occurrences were strongly negative, despite each malaria parasite occurring across all islands and habitats. Birds with microfilariae had elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratios and were all co-infected with avian malaria, consistent with evidence that host immune modulation by parasitic nematodes facilitates malaria co-infections. Importantly, co-occurrence patterns with microfilariae varied in direction among avian malaria species; two malaria parasites correlated positively but a third correlated negatively with microfilariae. We show that wildlife co-infections are frequent, possibly affecting infection rates through competition or facilitation. We argue that combining multiple diagnostic screening methods with multivariate logistic regression offers a platform to disentangle impacts of environmental factors and parasite co-occurrences on wildlife disease. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society


PubMed | Fischerstr.1, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research and Islamic Azad University at Jahrom
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2016

Holotachysphex iraniensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Crabronidae) from southern Iran is described. A revised key to the world species of Holotachysphex is provided. A red form of H. mochii from Jordan is described.

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