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Medicine, Germany

Hanisch F.-G.,Institute of Biochemistry II | Hanisch F.-G.,University of Cologne
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

The sites of mucin-type O-glycosylation are largely unpredictable, making structural analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) indispensible. On the peptide level, a site localization and characterization of O-linked glycans in situ using tandem MS with electron-transfer dissociation or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) MS with postsource decay have been reported. The top-down sequencing on the protein level by MALDI-MS is based on the in-source decay (ISD) of intact glycoproteins induced by hydrogen radical transfer from the matrix. It allows a ladder sequencing from both termini with assignment of O-glycosylation sites based on intense c-, y-, and z-type ions. The feasibility of ISD-MALDI-MS in the localization of O-glycosylation sites was demonstrated with synthetic O-glycopeptides, the tandem repeat domain of recombinant MUC1, and the natural bovine glycoproteins asialofetuin and desialylated κ-casein. Ladder sequencing of the 17-18.5 kD MUC1 hexarepeat domains revealed (1) cell-specific glycosylation site patterns on comparison of probes expressed in human HEK-293 or Drosophila S2 cells, and (2) a site-specific microheterogeneity at the Thr/Ser sites with variations of the glycan compositions from zero to four monosaccharides. Novel O-glycosylation sites in the C-terminal domains of fetuin (T334) and κ-caseinoglycopeptide (S154 and T156) were assigned, the former representing a sequence conflict with the published T154. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Razawi H.,Institute of Biochemistry II | Kinlough C.L.,Renal Electrolyte Division | Kinlough C.L.,University of Pittsburgh | Staubach S.,Institute of Biochemistry II | And 8 more authors.
Glycobiology | Year: 2013

The apical transmembrane glycoprotein MUC1 is endocytosed to recycle through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) or Golgi complex to the plasma membrane. We followed the hypothesis that not only the known follow-up sialylation of MUC1 in the TGN is associated with this process, but also a remodeling of O-glycan core structures, which would explain the previously described differential core 2- vs core 1-based O-glycosylation of secreted, single Golgi passage and recycling membrane MUC1 isoforms (Engelmann K, Kinlough CL, Müller S, Razawi H, Baldus SE, Hughey RP, Hanisch F-G. 2005. Glycobiology. 15:1111-1124). Transmembrane and secreted MUC1 probes show trafficking-dependent changes in O-glycan core profiles. To address this novel observation, we used recombinant epitope-tagged MUC1 (MUC1-M) and mutant forms with abrogated clathrin-mediated endocytosis (MUC1-M-Y20,60N) or blocked recycling (palmitoylation-defective MUC1-M-CQC/AQA). We show that the CQC/AQA mutant transits the TGN at significantly lower levels, concomitant with a strongly reduced shedding from the plasma membrane and its accumulation in endosomal compartments. Intriguingly, the O-glycosylation of the shed MUC1 ectodomain subunit changes from preponderant sialylated core 1 (MUC1-M) to core 2 glycans on the non-recycling CQC/AQA mutant. The O-glycoprofile of the non-recycling CQC/AQA mutant resembles the core 2 glycoprofile on a secretory MUC1 probe that transits the Golgi complex only once. In contrast, the MUC1-M-Y20,60N mutant recycles via flotillin-dependent pathways and shows the wild-type phenotype with dominant core 1 expression. Differential radiolabeling of protein with [ 35S]Met/Cys or glycans with [3H]GlcNH2 in pulse-chase experiments of surface biotinylated MUC1 revealed a significantly shorter half-life of [3H]MUC1 when compared with [ 35S]MUC1, whereas the same ratio for the CQC/AQA mutant was close to one. This finding further supports the novel possibility of a recycling-associated O-glycan processing from Gal1-4GlcNAc1-6(Gal1-3)GalNAc (core 2) to Gal1-3GalNAc (core 1). © 2013 The Author 2013.

Husnjak K.,Institute of Biochemistry II | Dikic I.,Institute of Biochemistry II | Dikic I.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Dikic I.,University of Split
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Ubiquitin acts as a versatile cellular signal that controls a wide range of biological processes including protein degradation, DNA repair, endocytosis, autophagy, transcription, immunity, and inflammation. The specificity of ubiquitin signaling is achieved by alternative conjugation signals (monoubiquitin and ubiquitin chains) and interactions with ubiquitin-binding proteins (known as ubiquitin receptors) that decode ubiquitinated target signals into biochemical cascades in the cell. Herein, we review the current knowledge pertaining to the structural and functional features of ubiquitin-binding proteins and the mechanisms by which they recognize various types of ubiquitin topologies. The combinatorial use of diverse ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs) in full-length proteins, selective recognition of chains with distinct linkages and length, and posttranslational modifications of ubiquitin receptors or multivalent interactions within protein complexes illustrate a few mechanisms by which a circuitry of signaling networks can be rewired by ubiquitin-binding proteins to control cellular functions in vivo. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Dikic I.,Institute of Biochemistry II | Bremm A.,Institute of Biochemistry II
EMBO Journal | Year: 2014

The Parkinson's disease-associated ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin impacts various cellular processes including the autophagic clearance of defective mitochondria. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Durcan et al () reveal a novel control mechanism of parkin-mediated mitophagy via the selective removal of atypical K6-linked ubiquitin chains from parkin by the deubiquitinase USP8. Together with recent studies on USP15 and USP30, this establishes a functional role for deubiquitination in mitophagy regulation. © 2014 The Authors.

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