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Shah S.A.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | Din S.U.,University of Balochistan | Raheem N.,Medical Center | Daud S.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | And 7 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2014

The TYR gene (MIM #6069333) is located at position 11q14.3 on the human chromosome, and encodes tyrosinase, which is expressed in melanocytes and controls the biosynthesis of melanin. Most TYR mutations eliminate the activity of tyrosinase, preventing melanocytes from producing any melanin throughout life. People with this form of albinism have white hair, light-coloured eyes and very pale skin. Some mutations in TYR reduce but do not completely eliminate tyrosinase activity, and allow some melanin to be produced. We report a Pakistani family with four members affected by oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). Blood samples were collected from all affected individuals, normal siblings and their parents. Genomic DNA was extracted, and sequence analysis of all the coding exons and adjacent intronic sequences of TYR was performed, which identified a novel missense substitution (p.Ile198Thr). Sequencing of TYR in 90 unrelated healthy individuals showed no sequence variant at this location. Our study expands the mutational spectrum of OCA1. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists. Source


Baloch A.H.,BUITEMS | Shuja J.,Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy | Daud S.,Center for Advanced Molecular Biology | Daud S.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | And 9 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Purpose: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy of females throughout the world with one million new cases each year. In Pakistan, the burden of breast cancer disease is high with late stage presentation being a common feature, more than half being stage III or stage IV. The objective of this study was to study various aspects, patterns and risk factors in breast cancer patients of Balochistan. Method: Present study was performed on 134 patients of breast cancer who were registered in CENAR. The patients were interviewed by providing a questionnaire. Informed consent was taken from all the patients who took part in this study after explanation of the study aims. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated andbiopsy reports were obtained from patients files. All the cases were classified with respect to age, gender, ethnic group (Baloch, Pashtoon, Punjabi, Afghani, Hazara) BMI, cancer type, cancer grade, hormonal status, side of the cancer, fertility and marital status. Results: Out of 134 patients, the most common ethnic group was Pashtoon with a total of 42 and the common age group was 41-50 years with a total of 51. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) was the most common type, accounting for in 128 patients (95.5%) followed by invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Conclusion: Pashtoon was the most common ethnic group, IDC was common type and most of the patients had an ER/PR positive hormonal status. Source


Shah S.A.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | Raheem N.,University of Balochistan | Daud S.,BUITEMS | Mubeen J.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2015

Summary Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of abnormal melanin formation, which results in hypopigmentation of skin, hair and eyes. OCA is classified into four types based on clinical and genetic findings. OCA1 is the most severe form of albinism, and is caused by mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene, while OCA4 is caused due to mutations in SLC45A2. Methods In total, 13 families with ≥ 3 members with OCA were enrolled. Family history was ascertained and pedigrees were drawn up. Blood samples were collected and processed for DNA extraction. Linkage analysis was performed by typing three short tandem repeat markers in candidate regions of TYR and SLC45A2. Sequence analysis was performed of all the coding exons and adjacent intronic sequences of both genes. Results Eight families showed linkage to OCA1 and one family showed linkage to OCA4. Four missense substitutions (p.Arg239Trp, p.Ser192Tyr, p.Ser44Arg and p.Arg77Gln) were identified in TYR in the families with OCA1 linkage, and another missense substitution (p.Gln272Lys) was identified in the family with OCA4 linkage. One of the identified missense substitution (p.Arg77Gln) in TYR was found in five different families, which had a common haplotype. Conclusions We identified four missense substitutions in TYR and a single missense substitution in SLC45A2. One missense substitution (p.Arg77Gln) in TYR was found in five different families that originated from the same geographical area and displayed a common haplotype, suggesting a single origin that then spread to different geographical areas of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists. Source


Daud S.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | Kakar N.,University of Ulm | Goebel I.,University of Ulm | Goebel I.,University of Hamburg | And 13 more authors.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration | Year: 2016

Biallelic mutations of ALS2 cause a clinical spectrum of overlapping autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders: infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis (IAHSP), juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), and juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2). We report on eleven individuals affected with IAHSP from two consanguineous Pakistani families. A combination of linkage analysis with homozygosity mapping and targeted sequencing identified two novel ALS2 mutations, a c.194T > C (p.Phe65Ser) missense substitution located in the first RCC-like domain of ALS2/alsin and a c.2998delA (p.Ile1000∗) nonsense mutation. This study of extended families including a total of eleven affected individuals suggests that a given ALS2 mutation may lead to a phenotype with remarkable intrafamilial clinical homogeneity. © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Source


Baloch A.H.,BUITEMS | Daud S.,Center for Advanced Molecular Biology | Daud S.,Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology IBBt | Raheem N.,Medical Center | And 13 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

CHEK2 encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase which plays a critical role in DNA damage signaling pathways. CHEK2 directly phosphorylates and regulates the functions of p53 and BRCA1. Most women with breast and/or ovarian cancer are not carriers of mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2. Multiple studies have shown that a CHEK2*1100delC confers about a two-fold increased risk of breast cancer in unselected females and a tenfold increase in males. Moreover, studies have shown that first-degree relatives of bilateral breast cancer cases who carried the CHEK2*1100delC allele had an eight-fold increased risk of breast cancer. It has been suggested that CHEK2 functions as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene for cancers and multiplies the risks associated with other gene(s) to increase cancer risk. The main goal of this study was to evaluate and to compare the role of truncating mutations, splice junction mutations and rare missense substitutions in breast cancer susceptibility gene CHEK2. Present study was performed on 140 individuals including 70 breast cancer patients both with and without family history and 70 normal individuals. Written consent was obtained and 3 ml intravenous blood was drawn from all the subjects. DNA was extracted from all the samples through inorganic method published already. Primers were synthesized for all the 14 exons of CHEK2 gene. Coding and adjacent intronic sequences of CHEK2 gene were amplified and sequenced. Two genetic variants (p.H371Y, p.D438Y) were found in exon 10 and exon 11 of gene CHEK2 which were not found in any of the 70 control individuals from same geographical area and ethnic group. The genetic variant c.1312G>T (p.D438Y) identified in a patient with a family history of breast cancer. To our knowledge, this is first mutation scanning study of gene CHEK2 from Balochistan population. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014. Source

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