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Maremmani I.,University of Pisa | Maremmani I.,Institute of Behavioral science | Gerra G.,Drug Prevention and Health Branch
American Journal on Addictions

Maintenance therapy with methadone or buprenorphine-based regimens reduces opioid dependence and associated harms. The perception that methadone is more effective than buprenorphine for maintenance treatment has been based on low buprenorphine doses and excessively slow induction regimens used in early buprenorphine trials. Subsequent studies show that the efficacy of buprenorphine sublingual tablet (Subutex®) or buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablet (Suboxone®) is equivalent to that of methadone when sufficient buprenorphine doses, rapid induction, and flexible dosing are used. Although methadone remains an essential maintenance therapy option, buprenorphine-based regimens increase access to care and provide safer, more appropriate treatment than methadone for some patients. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry. Source

Halasz P.,Institute of Clinical Neuroscience | Bodizs R.,Institute of Behavioral science | Parrino L.,University of Parma | Terzano M.,University of Parma
Sleep Medicine

In this paper we reviewed results of sleep research that have changed the views about sleep slow wave homeostasis, which involve use-dependent and experience-dependent local aspects to understand more of the physiology of plastic changes during sleep. Apart from the traditional homeostatic slow-wave economy, we also overviewed research on the existence and role of reactive aspects of sleep slow waves. Based on the results from spontaneous and artificially evoked slow waves, we offer a new hypothesis on instant slow wave homeostatic regulation. This regulation compensates for any potentially sleep-disturbing events by providing instant "delta injections" to maintain the nightly delta level, thus protecting cognitive functions located in the frontal lobe. We suggest that this double (long-term /instant) homeostasis provides double security for the frontal lobes in order to protect cognitive functions. The incorporation of reactive slow wave activity (SWA) makes sleep regulation more dynamic and provides more room for the internalization of external influences during sleep. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Hunter L.M.,Institute of Behavioral science | Strife S.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Twine W.,University of Witwatersrand
Society and Natural Resources

The state of the local environment shapes the well-being of millions of rural residents in developing nations. Still, we know little of these individuals' environmental perceptions. This study analyzes survey data collected in an impoverished, rural region in northeast South Africa, to understand the factors that shape concern with local environmental issues. We use the "post-materialist thesis" to explore the different explanations for environmental concern in less developed regions of the world, with results revealing the importance of both cultural and physical context. In particular, gendered interaction with natural resources shapes perceptions, as does the local setting. Both theoretical and policy implications are discussed. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Sugita H.,Institute of Behavioral science | Zhao S.,Dalian University of Technology
Proceedings of the Conference on Traffic and Transportation Studies, ICTTS

This paper develops a comprehensive model (MERS) to evaluate urban environmental measures which contribute to an eco-friendly city. The characteristic of MERS is a practical model which is based on Person Trip Survey data. MERS has two sub-models, Urban Activity Model and Evaluation Model. Urban Activity Model consists of Land Use Model and Transportation Model. Land Use Model estimates the volume of employee and populations. Transportation Model estimates transportation demand by mode, and car traffic volume on each road links. Evaluation Model consists of environmental evaluation model, quality of life evaluation model and economic evaluation model. Evaluation results can be represented on mesh unit or road network links. This paper will explain the framework of MERS and the results of a case study. © 2010 ASCE. Source

Tanner T.,Overseas Development Institute (ODI) | Lewis D.,The London School of Economics and Political Science | Wrathall D.,University of Bonn | Bronen R.,Alaska Institute for Justice | And 12 more authors.
Nature Climate Change

The resilience concept requires greater attention to human livelihoods if it is to address the limits to adaptation strategies and the development needs of the planet's poorest and most vulnerable people. Although the concept of resilience is increasingly informing research and policy, its transfer from ecological theory to social systems leads to weak engagement with normative, social and political dimensions of climate change adaptation. A livelihood perspective helps to strengthen resilience thinking by placing greater emphasis on human needs and their agency, empowerment and human rights, and considering adaptive livelihood systems in the context of wider transformational changes. Source

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