Botanic Institute of Barcelona

Barcelona, Spain

Botanic Institute of Barcelona

Barcelona, Spain
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Romaschenko K.,Smithsonian Institution | Romaschenko K.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Romaschenko K.,Botanic Institute of Barcelona | Garcia-Jacas N.,Botanic Institute of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Genetic interchange between American and Eurasian species is fundamental to our understanding of the biogeographical patterns, and we make a first attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary events in East Asia that lead to the origin and dispersal of two genera, Patis and Ptilagrostis. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of 78 species in the tribe Stipeae using four plastid DNA sequences (. ndhF, rpl32-trnL, rps16-trnK, and rps16 intron) and two nuclear DNA sequences (ITS and At103). We use single copy nDNA gene At103 for the first time in the grasses to elucidate the evolutionary history among members of the Stipeae. Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Oryzopsis, Pappostipa, Patis, and Stipa are found to be of multiple origins. Our phylograms reveal conflicting positions for Ptilagrostis alpina and Pt. porteri that form a clade with Patis coreana, P. obtusa, and P. racemosa in the combined plastid tree but are aligned with other members of Ptilagrostis in the ITS tree. We hypothesize that Ptilagrostis still retains the nucleotype of an extinct genus which transited the Bering land bridge from American origins in the late Miocene (minimum 7.35-6.37. mya) followed by hybridization and two plastid capture events with a Trikeraia-like taxon (7.96. mya) and para. Patis (between 5.32 and 3.76. mya). Ptilagrostis porteri and Patis racemosa then migrated to continental North America 1.7-2.9. mya and 4.3-5.3. mya, respectively. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Borsic I.,State Institute for Nature Protection | Borsic I.,Botanic Institute of Barcelona | Susanna A.,Botanic Institute of Barcelona | Bancheva S.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Garcia-Jacas N.,Botanic Institute of Barcelona
International Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2011

Section Cyanus of Centaurea is a group that is very well defined morphologically and, thus, is a good representative of many radiations of eastern groups of the genus in the Mediterranean region. To confirm the existence of the two natural groups, subsect. Cyanus (annual species) and subsect. Perennes (perennial taxa), typically defined within this section, and to confirm their radiation patterns, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out using the highly variable nuclear-ribosomal spacers ITS (internal transcribed spacer) and 39ETS (external transcribed spacer). Our results confirm the eastern origin of the group, which probably arose from a Caucasian and North Iranian stock. Both subsections are monophyletic, and annuals (subsect. Cyanus) arose from perennials in Anatolia. The radiations of the two subsections follow very different patterns. Inconsistencies between present classifications and molecular results strongly suggest that the present delineation of some species (Centaurea triumfetti being the best example) is incorrect, and a deep taxonomic revision is necessary. © 2011 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

Chung M.Y.,Seowon University | Chung M.Y.,Gyeongsang National University | Lopez-Pujol J.,Botanic Institute of Barcelona | Chung M.G.,Gyeongsang National University
Annales Botanici Fennici | Year: 2015

Boreal Lilium distichum and temperate L. tsingtauense are morphologically very similar, thus they have been placed in the section Martagon. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that L. distichum and L. tsingtauense are indeed the most closely related species within that section. Lilium distichum has a wider geographic range and a broader niche than L. tsingtauense. We hypothesized that L. distichum-L. tsingtauense might be a classical "progenitor-derivative" (P-D) species pair and examined the levels of allozyme diversity in the two species in South Korea. Whereas the allelic composition of L. tsingtauense represented a subset of L. distichum, the former had significantly lower allozyme variability at both the population and the species levels than the latter. Except for the locus Fe (fluorescent esterase), allele frequencies of L. distichum were very similar to those of L. tsingtauense. Accordingly, pairwise genetic identities between populations of L. distichum and L. tsingtauense were very high, with a mean of 0.919. Our allozyme results support the hypothesis that L. tsingtauense is a derivative species of the progenitor L. distichum. © 2015 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board.

Lopez-Vinyallonga S.,Botanic Institute of Barcelona | Soriano I.,University of Barcelona | Susanna A.,Botanic Institute of Barcelona | Montserra J.M.,Barcelona Botanical Garden | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The Achillea millefolium aggregate is one of the most diverse polyploid complexes of the Northern hemisphere and has its western Eurasian boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Four ploidy levels have been detected in A. millefolium, three of which have already been found in Iberia (diploid, hexaploid and octoploid), and a fourth (tetraploid) reported during the preparation of this paper. We collected a sample from 26 Iberian populations comprising all ploidy levels, and we used microsatellite markers analyzed as dominant in view of the high ploidy levels. Our goals were to quantify the genetic diversity of A. millefolium in the Iberian Peninsula, to elucidate its genetic structure, to investigate the differences in ploidy levels, and to analyse the dispersal of the species. The lack of spatial genetic structure recovered is linked to both high levels of gene flow between populations and to the fact that most genetic variability occurs within populations. This in turn suggests the existence of a huge panmictic yarrow population in the Iberian Peninsula. This is consistent with the assumption that recent colonization and rapid expansion occurred throughout this area. Likewise, the low levels of genetic variability recovered suggest that bottlenecks and/or founder events may have been involved in this process, and clonal reproduction may have played an important role in maintaining this genetic impoverishment. Indeed, the ecological and phenologic uniformity present in the A. millefolium agg. in Iberia compared to Eurasia and North America may be responsible for the low number of representatives of this complex of species present in the Iberian Peninsula. The low levels of genetic differentiation between ploidy levels recovered in our work suggest the absence of barriers between them. Copyright: © 2015 López-Vinyallonga et al.

This study contends that progress in the understanding of the origin and maintenance of extant neotropical biodiversity by means of empirical evidence is hampered by the persistence of anachronistic conceptual approaches, notably the adherence to closed paradigms or ruling theories. The topic is discussed from three main perspectives: (1) the tendency to shift from one paradigm to another, (2) the use and abuse of broad generalizations from a single or a few case studies and (3) the use of inadequate phylogenetic dating (usually crown dating alone) for a sound appraisal of diversification timing. The origin of neotropical biodiversity is a complex subject that requires an open-minded attitude to be fully captured. The solution proposed is fairly easy, somewhat trivial, and rooted in the classical multiple working hypotheses (MWH) approach. The MWH seeks to explore any explanation possible for observed phenomena and develop every testable hypothesis in relation to their possible causes. The MWH approach promotes thoroughness, suggests lines of inquiry that might otherwise be overlooked and develops the habit of parallel and complex thought that, unfortunately, is not fully developed in the empirical study of neotropical biodiversity. © 2013 The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London .

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