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Hôpital-Camfrout, France

Leveque D.,Pharmacy Pharmacology | Leveque D.,Institute of Bacteriology | Nivoix Y.,Pharmacy Pharmacology | Jehl F.,Institute of Bacteriology | Ubeaud-Sequier G.,Pharmacy Pharmacology
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology | Year: 2010

Posaconazole is a recent triazole antifungal agent currently available in an oral suspension. It is approved in the treatment of various refractory invasive fungal diseases and for prophylaxis in high-risk patients. This review presents the published clinical pharmacokinetic data of posaconazole. Aspects regarding absorption, distribution, elimination, and pharmacokinetic interactions are also discussed. © PremiumReasons.

Prunner I.,University of Vienna | Wagener K.,University of Vienna | Wagener K.,Institute of Bacteriology | Pothmann H.,University of Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

The involution process of the postpartum bovine uterus is usually accompanied by invasion of various bacteria. The objectives of this study were to identify the relationship between the postpartum findings as risk factors for clinical endometritis (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SE). Furthermore, the effects of CE or SE on reproductive performance in small- and medium-sized dairy herds were investigated. A total of 400 cows were examined by vaginoscopy for CE at 20 to 30days postpartum, and samples were collected for cytological examinations for SE and for bacteriology by cytobrush technique. The vaginoscopic and cytological examinations showed that 27.3% and 21.0% of the cows were found with CE and SE, respectively. The bacterial community analyses revealed a large variety of bacteria. Overall, bacteria from the order Actinomycetales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales, Burkholderiales, Caulobacteriales Enterobacteriales, Pasteurellales, and Pseudomonadales were detected, whereas in 39.5% of the samples no bacterial growth was detectable. The uterine pathogens Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes were found in 16.8% and 13.0% of the samples cultivated under aerobic conditions. Other frequently isolated bacteria were Streptococcus spp. (31.3%), Staphylococcus spp. (20.0%), Corynebacterium spp. (16.5%), and Bacillus spp. (10.5%). The infection with T. pyogenes was the most important bacteriological risk factor for the occurrence of CE (odds ratio (OR)=5.72; 95% CI=3.07-10.83) and had a detrimental effect on the hazard of nonpregnancy by 200days postpartum (hazard ratio=1.66; 95% CI=1.12-2.46). Calving assistance (OR=1.79; 95% CI=1.16-2.98) and farm (OR=1.11; 95% CI=1.02-1.20) were indicated as further risk factors for CE and SE. Effects of CE and SE on reproductive performance parameters could not be demonstrated. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Prunner I.,University of Vienna | Pothmann H.,University of Vienna | Wagener K.,University of Vienna | Wagener K.,Institute of Bacteriology | And 4 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

The objectives of this study were to characterize clinical, intrauterine, bacteriologic and cytologic changes during the first month after parturition in healthy dairy cows and in cows with subclinical endometritis (SE) or clinical endometritis (CE). Furthermore, risk factors related to clinical bacteriologic and cytologic findings were determined. A total of 170 calvings were enrolled, and intrauterine samples were collected on Days 0, 3, 9, 15, 21, and 28 postpartum using the cytobrush technique. The presence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cows were categorized according to their uterine health status (UHS) on Day 21 as healthy (clear or absent vaginal discharge and <5% polymorphonuclear cells [PMN] in the cytologic sample), SE (clear or absent vaginal discharge and ≥5% PMN), or CE (vaginal mucus containing any signs of pus). The prevalence of SE and CE on Day 21 was 27.9% and 58.4%, respectively. Generally, samples from cows with SE and CE showed a greater bacterial growth density (BGD) than those from healthy cows. The BGD tended to be affected by the interaction of time by UHS (P=0.057). Differences between healthy, SE, and CE cows were found from Day 3 to the last sampling day. Furthermore, the percentage of PMN differed between healthy, SE, and CE cows and was affected by time in a cubic way (decrease/increase/decrease). Overall, E coli was found in 25.4% of the samples, and T pyogenes was identified in 30.2% of the samples. The risk for CE was increased by BGD and the presence of T pyogenes. Conversely, the presence of E coli had no effect on the risk of CE or the risk of SE. The risk for an infection with T pyogenes was greater in the first-parity cows and in cows with assisted calving. In conclusion, changes in BGD and proportion of PMN varied with the UHS (healthy, SE, and CE), which was affected by the presence of T pyogenes but not E coli. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Moussaoui W.,Institute of Bacteriology | Jaulhac B.,Institute of Bacteriology | Hoffmann A.-M.,Institute of Bacteriology | Ludes B.,University of Strasbourg | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now widely used for marker/multi-biomarker detection in medical diagnosis. We tested a new protocol for bacterial identification from blood culture broths in hospital routine by using collection tubes with separator gels on 503 included samples examined over 3 months, where 1.5mL was injected by a syringe into BD Vacutainer tubes from BACTEC-positive bottles, before processing for bacterial protein extraction. Samples were loaded in duplicate onto the MALDI MS target, allowing a series of 12 samples to be processed in duplicate within 80min by using Biflex III and BioTyper 2.0 software (Bruker). Including polymicrobial samples, 193 of 213 of Gram-negative bacteria (91.08%) and 284 of 319 of Gram-positive bacteria (89.02%) were correctly identified at the species level. Enterobacteriaceae constituted 35.15% of all species found, Staphylococaceae 37.96%, Streptococaceae and Enterococaceae 20.85%, Pseudomonadaceae 1.69%, and anaerobes 2.44%. In most of the polymicrobial samples, one of the species present was identified (80.9%). Seven isolates remained misidentified as Streptococcus pneumoniae, all belonging to Streptococcus mitis. Staphylococcus aureus was identified better when grown on anaero-aerobic medium, and MALDI BioTyper identification scores as low as 1.4 were pertinent, provided that four successive proposals of the same species were given. This new protocol correlates with conventional microbiology procedures by up to 90%, and by >95% for only monomicrobial samples, and provides a decreased turn-around time for identification of bacteria isolated from blood cultures, making this technology suitable also for blood cultures, with less delay and cost decreases in bacterial diagnostics, and favouring better care of patients. © 2010 MALDI Biotypes. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Klang A.,Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine | Loncaric I.,Institute of Bacteriology | Spergser J.,Institute of Bacteriology | Eigelsreiter S.,Veterinary Clinic Vorgartenstrasse | Weissenbock H.,Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine
Medical Mycology Case Reports | Year: 2013

We present a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a domestic cat imported from the USA to Austria. Histopathological examination revealed a systemic mycosis with most severe involvement of the lungs suggestive of Histoplasma (H.) capsulatum-infection. Molecular confirmation was based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis of a fungal culture from liver samples. This is the first case of feline histoplasmosis proven by molecular diagnostic technique in Europe and reported in Austria, etc. © 2013 International Society for Human and Animal Mycology.

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