Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine

Bangalore, India

Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine

Bangalore, India
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Vishnuprasad C.N.,Yeungnam University | Pradeep N.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute | Cho Y.W.,Hanyang University | Gangadharan G.G.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Han S.S.,Yeungnam University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2013

Ethnopharmacological relevance Ayurveda has its unique perceptions and resultant methodologies for defining and treating human diseases. Fumigation therapy is one of the several treatment methods described in Ayurveda whereby fumes produced from defined drug formulations are inhaled by patients. This therapeutic procedure offers promising research opportunities from phytochemical and ethnopharmacological viewpoints, however, it remains under-noticed. Considering these facts, this review is primarily aimed at introducing said Ayurvedic fumigation therapy and discussing its scientific gaps and future challenges. Methodology A search of multiple bibliographical databases and traditional Ayurvedic text books was conducted and the articles analyzed under various key themes, e.g., Ayurvedic fumigation, fumigation therapy, medicinal fumigation, inhalation of drugs and aerosol therapy. Result Ayurveda recommends fumigation as a method of sterilization and therapeutic procedure for various human diseases including microbial infections and psychological disorders. However, it has not gained much attention as a prospective field with multiple research opportunities. Conclusion It is necessary to have a more detailed and systematic investigation of the phytochemical and pharmacodynamic properties of Ayurvedic fumigation therapy in order to facilitate the identification of novel bioactive compounds and more effective drug administration methods. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Dubey A.K.,National Center for Biological science | Dubey A.K.,University of Mysore | Godbole A.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Srinivasan S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Mathew M.K.,National Center for Biological science
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Objectives: The Voltage Dependent Anion-Selective Channel (VDAC), the most abundant protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), forms the major conduit for metabolite transport across this membrane. It has also been shown to be involved in cell death signalling through interaction with other proteins like Hexokinase and by mediating release of apoptogenic proteins like cyt c from mitochondria. As in case of other channel proteins, functional characterization of purified reconstituted protein by using electrophysiological techniques can be used in development of VDAC targeted drugs. Here we report electrophysiological properties of VDACs (one of the target for cancerous cells) purified from different sources. Methods: Human VDAC1 and rice VDAC4 were heterologously expressed and purified from E. coli BL21 (DE3)-pLysS, while rat and yeast VDACs were purified from mitochondria. Electrophysiological studies of all VDACs were done by using BLM and the data was analysed by using pCLAMP 10 (Axon Instruments). Results: VDACs purified from both the sources showed conserved voltage dependence and channel conductance, however they showed significant difference in dynamics. VDAC purified from mitochondria had relatively short occupancy of each electrophysiological state compared to protein purified from inclusion bodies. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the source of purified protein could be critical for some aspects of channel,2 function.

Saravanakumar T.,Bannari Amman Institute of Technology | Venkatasubramanian P.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Vasanthi N.S.,Bannari Amman Institute of Technology | Manonmani E.,Bannari Amman Institute of Technology
International Journal of Green Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Aim: The present work was carried out to study the antimicrobial potential of the methanolic stem extracts of authentic Daruharidra and four of its substitute plant materials along with eight of those collected from different raw drug markets in South India against six eye-infecting bacteria viz., Nocardia sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus viridians and Escherichia coli. Materials and Methods: The entire testing was carried out by agar well diffusion method after obtaining the samples from clinical laboratory in Coimbatore. Care was taken for complete maintenance of sterile conditions. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluations were conducted by ANOVA and P < 0.01 were considered significant. Results: Of the six organisms tested, the extracts showed activity against only three eye infecting pathogens. The highest antimicrobial activity was found against E. coli (24.00 ± 0) with an MIC of 23.20 mg/ml and the least against Nocardia sp (6.2 ± 0) with an MIC of 6.00 mg/ml. The inhibitory effects of the methanolic extracts on the growth of three organisms viz., Nocardia sp, S. pneumonia and E. coli are close and are comparable with the standard antibiotic discs used. Conclusion: Thus this study suggests that Daruharidra and its traded substitutes may be used in treating eye infection caused by Nocardia sp, S. pneumonia and E. coli. © 2014 International Journal of Green Pharmacy. All Rights Reserved.

Adams S.J.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Kuruvilla G.R.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Krishnamurthy K.V.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Nagarajan M.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Venkatasubramanian P.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy | Year: 2013

The study include the establishment of pharmacognostic and phytochemical characters of Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle, Ranunculaceae) and to compare them with its substitutes, Cyperus rotundus L. (Musta), C. scariosus R. Br., Cyperaceae, and Cryptocoryne spiralis (Retz.) Fisch. ex Wydler, Araceae (Country Ativisha). Morphology of the four species was compared in authentic samples collected from the f eld. We performed histological, histochemical, phytochemical tests, using standard protocols. HPLC studies were done on aqueous extracts of samples in a Shimadzu HPLC system and the peaks were observed at 254 nm. Pharmacognostic characterization of Ativisha and others was done as completely as possible. On basis of histochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloid, terpenoid-alkaloid complex, lipids and calcium oxalate majorly. There was less than 50% similarity between Ativisha and the other three species in microscopic characters. There was greater similarity (87%) between the two Cyperus species. The phytochemical studies, on the other hand, showed less similarity (79.2%) between the two Cyperus species. There was greater phytochemical similarity (84.6%) between Aconitum and Cryptocoryne, which justifies the name "Country Ativisha" for the latter. Based on anatomical and histochemical analysis, structural as well as chemical parameters helpful in distinguishing Ativisha from the other three species were established. The phytochemical prof les showed that A. heterophyllum and Cyperus species have five common HPLC peaks which may explain some of their common therapeutic activities. Ativisha and Cryptocoryne show greater phytochemical similarities to one another and this explains why the latter is used in Siddha system of medicine as country Ativisha.

Godbole A.,National Center for Biological science | Godbole A.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Godbole A.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Dubey A.K.,National Center for Biological science | And 5 more authors.
Protoplasma | Year: 2013

The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and mitochondrially located hexokinase have been implicated both in pathways leading to cell death on the one hand, and immortalization in tumor formation on the other. While both proteins have also been implicated in death processes in plants, their interaction has not been explored. We have examined cell death following heterologous expression of a rice VDAC in the tobacco cell line BY2 and in leaves of tobacco plants and show that it is ameliorated by co-expression of hexokinase. Hexokinase also abrogates death induced by H2O2. We conclude that the ratio of expression of the two proteins and their interaction play a major role in modulating death pathways in plants. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Godbole A.,National Center for Biological science | Godbole A.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Mitra R.,National Center for Biological science | Mitra R.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Membrane Biology | Year: 2011

The voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) is the most abundant protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms the major conduit for metabolite transport across this membrane. VDACs from different sources show varied primary sequence but conserved functional properties. Here, we report on the characterization of a rice channel, OsVDAC4, which complements a VDAC1 deficiency in yeast. We present a consensus secondary structure prediction of an N-terminal α-helix and 19 β-strands. Bacterially expressed OsVDAC4 was purified from inclusion bodies into detergent-containing solution, where it is largely helical. Detergent-solubilized OsVDAC4 inserts spontaneously into artificial membranes of two topologies-spherical liposomes and planar bilayers. Insertion into liposomes results in an increase in β-structure. Transport of polyethylene glycols was used to estimate a pore diameter of ~2.6 nm in liposomes. Channels formed in planar bilayers exhibit large conductance (4.6 ± 0.3 nS in 1 M KCl), strong voltage dependence and weak anion selectivity. The open state of the channel is shown to be permeable to ATP. These data are consistent with a large β-barrel pore formed by OsVDAC4 on inserting into membranes. This study forms a platform to carry out studies of the interaction of OsVDAC4 with putative modulators. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sudha V.B.P.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Ganesan S.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Pazhani G.P.,Indian National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases | Ramamurthy T.,Indian National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2012

Microbially-unsafe water is still a major concern in most developing countries. Although many water-purification methods exist, these are expensive and beyond the reach of many people, especially in rural areas. Ayurveda recommends the use of copper for storing drinking-water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper pot on microbially-contaminated drinking-water. The antibacterial effect of copper pot against important diarrhoeagenic bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae O1, Shigella flexneri 2a, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella enterica Typhi, and Salmonella Paratyphi is reported. When drinking-water (pH 7.83±0.4; source: ground) was contaminated with 500 CFU/mL of the above bacteria and stored in copper pots for 16 hours at room temperature, no bacteria could be recovered on the culture medium. Recovery failed even after resuscitation in enrichment broth, followed by plating on selective media, indicating loss of culturability. This is the first report on the effect of copper on S. flexneri 2a, enteropathogenic E. coli, and Salmonella Paratyphi. After 16 hours, there was a slight increase in the pH of water from 7.83 to 7.93 in the copper pots while the other physicochemical parameters remained unchanged. Copper content (177±16 ppb) in water stored in copper pots was well within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization. Copper holds promise as a point-of-use solution for microbial purification of drinking-water, especially in developing countries. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

Mathur A.,Novartis | Sankar V.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2010

Reported lack of efficacy of Ayurvedic treatments in clinical trials is often not due to inefficacy of the treatment itself, but arises from inadequacies of trial design. This paper argues that trials of Ayurvedic interventions should exclusively use its multi-component, individualized and inherently holistic approach, and that general guidelines for rigorously reporting such clinical trials should be developed. Holistic Ayurvedic clinical trials, rigorously conducted and with high standards of reporting should translate into good clinical science, and may be expected to generate higher credibility for clinical studies of the Ayurvedic knowledge system.

Patwardhan K.,Banaras Hindu University | Patwardhan K.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
American Journal of Physiology - Advances in Physiology Education | Year: 2012

Ayurveda, the nativehealthcare system of India, is a rich resource of well-documentedancient medical knowledge. Although the roots of this knowledge dateback to the Vedic and post-Vedic eras, it is generally believed that adedicated branch for healthcare was gradually established approximatelybetween 400 BCE and 200 CE. Probably because the languageof documentation of these early textbooks is in Sanskrit, a languagethat is not in day-to-day use among the general population even inIndia, many significant contributions of Ayurveda have remainedunrecognized in the literature related to the history of medicine. In thiscommunication, the discovery of blood circulation has been taken upas a case, and a few important references from the representativeAyurveda compendia that hint at a preliminary understanding of thecardiovascular system as a "closed circuit" and the heart acting as apump have been reviewed. The central argument of this review is thatthese contributions from Ayurveda too must be recorded and creditedwhen reviewing the milestones in the history of medicine, asAyurveda can still possibly guide various streams of the currentsciences, if revisited with this spirit.

Balasubramani S.P.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Venkatasubramanian P.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Kukkupuni S.K.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Patwardhan B.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine | Year: 2011

Rasayana tantra is one of the eight specialties of Ayurveda. It is a specialized practice in the form of rejuvenative recipes, dietary regimen, special health promoting behaviour and drugs. Properly administered Rasayana can bestow the human being with several benefits like longevity, memory, intelligence, freedom from diseases, youthful age, excellence of luster, complexion and voice, optimum strength of physique and sense organs, respectability and brilliance. Various types of plant based Rasayana recipes are mentioned in Ayurveda. Review of the current literature available on Rasayanas indicates that anti-oxidant and immunomodulation are the most studied activities of the Rasayana drugs. Querying in Pubmed database on Rasayanas reveals that single plants as well as poly herbal formulations have been researched on. This article reviews the basics of Rasayana therapy and the published research on different Rasayana drugs for specific health conditions. It also provides the possible directions for future research. © The Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine Press and Springer-Verlag 2011.

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