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Patwardhan K.,Banaras Hindu University | Patwardhan K.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
American Journal of Physiology - Advances in Physiology Education | Year: 2012

Ayurveda, the nativehealthcare system of India, is a rich resource of well-documentedancient medical knowledge. Although the roots of this knowledge dateback to the Vedic and post-Vedic eras, it is generally believed that adedicated branch for healthcare was gradually established approximatelybetween 400 BCE and 200 CE. Probably because the languageof documentation of these early textbooks is in Sanskrit, a languagethat is not in day-to-day use among the general population even inIndia, many significant contributions of Ayurveda have remainedunrecognized in the literature related to the history of medicine. In thiscommunication, the discovery of blood circulation has been taken upas a case, and a few important references from the representativeAyurveda compendia that hint at a preliminary understanding of thecardiovascular system as a "closed circuit" and the heart acting as apump have been reviewed. The central argument of this review is thatthese contributions from Ayurveda too must be recorded and creditedwhen reviewing the milestones in the history of medicine, asAyurveda can still possibly guide various streams of the currentsciences, if revisited with this spirit. Source


Godbole A.,National Center for Biological science | Godbole A.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Godbole A.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Dubey A.K.,National Center for Biological science | And 5 more authors.
Protoplasma | Year: 2013

The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and mitochondrially located hexokinase have been implicated both in pathways leading to cell death on the one hand, and immortalization in tumor formation on the other. While both proteins have also been implicated in death processes in plants, their interaction has not been explored. We have examined cell death following heterologous expression of a rice VDAC in the tobacco cell line BY2 and in leaves of tobacco plants and show that it is ameliorated by co-expression of hexokinase. Hexokinase also abrogates death induced by H2O2. We conclude that the ratio of expression of the two proteins and their interaction play a major role in modulating death pathways in plants. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien. Source


Mathur A.,Novartis | Sankar V.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2010

Reported lack of efficacy of Ayurvedic treatments in clinical trials is often not due to inefficacy of the treatment itself, but arises from inadequacies of trial design. This paper argues that trials of Ayurvedic interventions should exclusively use its multi-component, individualized and inherently holistic approach, and that general guidelines for rigorously reporting such clinical trials should be developed. Holistic Ayurvedic clinical trials, rigorously conducted and with high standards of reporting should translate into good clinical science, and may be expected to generate higher credibility for clinical studies of the Ayurvedic knowledge system. Source


Rotti H.,Manipal University India | Raval R.,Manipal University India | Bellampalli R.,Manipal University India | Bhale S.,NBN Sinhgad Technical Institute Campus | And 19 more authors.
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Constitutional type of an individual or prakriti is the basic clinical denominator in Ayurveda, which defines physical, physiological, and psychological traits of an individual and is the template for individualized diet, lifestyle counseling, and treatment. The large number of phenotype description by prakriti determination is based on the knowledge and experience of the assessor, and hence subject to inherent variations and interpretations.Objective: In this study we have attempted to relate dominant prakriti attribute to body mass index (BMI) of individuals by assessing an acceptable tool to provide the quantitative measure to the currently qualitative ayurvedic prakriti determinationMaterials and Methods: The study is cross sectional, multicentered, and prakriti assessment of a total of 3416 subjects was undertaken. Healthy male, nonsmoking, nonalcoholic volunteers between the age group of 20-30 were screened for their prakriti after obtaining written consent to participate in the study. The prakriti was determined on the phenotype description of ayurvedic texts and simultaneously by the use of a computer-aided prakriti assessment tool. Kappa statistical analysis was employed to validate the prakriti assessment and Chi-square, Cramer's V test to determine the relatedness in the dominant prakriti to various attributesResults: We found 80% concordance between ayurvedic physician and software in predicting the prakriti of an individual. The kappa value of 0.77 showed moderate agreement in prakriti assessment. We observed a significant correlations of dominant prakriti to place of birth and BMI with Chi-square, P < 0.01 (Cramer's V-value of 0.156 and 0.368, respectively)Conclusion: The present study attempts to integrate knowledge of traditional ayurvedic concepts with the contemporary science. We have demonstrated analysis of prakriti classification and its association with BMI and place of birth with the implications to one of the ways for human classification. Source


Godbole A.,National Center for Biological science | Godbole A.,Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine | Mitra R.,National Center for Biological science | Mitra R.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Membrane Biology | Year: 2011

The voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) is the most abundant protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane and forms the major conduit for metabolite transport across this membrane. VDACs from different sources show varied primary sequence but conserved functional properties. Here, we report on the characterization of a rice channel, OsVDAC4, which complements a VDAC1 deficiency in yeast. We present a consensus secondary structure prediction of an N-terminal α-helix and 19 β-strands. Bacterially expressed OsVDAC4 was purified from inclusion bodies into detergent-containing solution, where it is largely helical. Detergent-solubilized OsVDAC4 inserts spontaneously into artificial membranes of two topologies-spherical liposomes and planar bilayers. Insertion into liposomes results in an increase in β-structure. Transport of polyethylene glycols was used to estimate a pore diameter of ~2.6 nm in liposomes. Channels formed in planar bilayers exhibit large conductance (4.6 ± 0.3 nS in 1 M KCl), strong voltage dependence and weak anion selectivity. The open state of the channel is shown to be permeable to ATP. These data are consistent with a large β-barrel pore formed by OsVDAC4 on inserting into membranes. This study forms a platform to carry out studies of the interaction of OsVDAC4 with putative modulators. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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