Institute of Automotive Engineering

Braunschweig, Germany

Institute of Automotive Engineering

Braunschweig, Germany
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In this edition of the clean energy and transport news roundup, we’ve got stories about Colorado solar fees, sheep as solar workers, solar microgrids, a new integrated energy storage system, driverless car insurance policies, a 2500 mile EV roadtrip, automatic braking systems, Musk’s pessimism about slowing climate change, Chinese EV startups, and more. [CleanTechnica isn’t the only Important Media site to cover clean energy & transport news, and if you’re looking for more stories on electric mobility, bicycles, solar and wind energy, and other related issues, we’ve got them at sites such as Solar Love, CleanTechies, Planetsave, Bikocity, Gas2, and EV Obsession. We also host a large cleantech group on LinkedIn, called CleanTechies Around The World.] In Colorado, XCel Energy proposed a new charge on all solar customers, an idea that was furiously resisted by a dozen or more solar power advocacy groups. Now, all parties have agreed to a negotiated settlement of the dispute that may serve as a model for other states. The agreement involves refocusing the pricing of electricity for retail customers on a time of day model. Not every solar energy installation goes on top of a roof. Utility scale systems, community solar, and some residential systems often are mounted on the ground rather than up in the air. What many of the owners of such systems tend to forget is that steps need to be taken to control the vegetation that will inevitably start to grow up underneath and around the panels as soon as the project is completed. The plan was to install 200 solar panels, seven Tesla Powerwalls, several SolarEdge inverters, along with installing lights and plugs for dozens of buildings. In order to complete the project on time, they hired and trained local electricians and construction crews. After three weeks in Virunga, all three solar micro grids were successfully installed. Now the park rangers have reliable lighting, communication systems, computers, radios, and GPS units. That means they no longer need to risk their lives to bring in diesel fuel and can more effectively protect the park and its denizens from thieves and poachers. SimpliPhi Power technology utilizes patented, licensed lithium ferrous phosphate cells with state-of-the-art proprietary management boards, circuitry, cell architecture and methods of assembly to create safe, intelligen,t and energy dense storage and management systems. SimpliPhi batteries feature the highest efficiency rate in the industry (98 percent), 10,000 cycle life and 100 percent depth of discharge. The compact, lightweight form factor does not require ventilation or cooling, is rated for outdoor installation, and can operate at a wide temperature range of -4 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Alyssa Craft and Jesse Stafford completed a cheap off-grid cabin-add-on to the trailer they are living in while setting up their homestead in the Western US. The cabin was built to allow them to heat the air around the trailer and prevent the plumbing, and themselves, from freezing during the snowy winter months. Sri Lanka looks to 70% renewables by 2030: The ‘Battle for Solar energy’ program aims to encourage the small consumers to install solar panels at their roof-tops and consumers will be paid for any excess energy exported to the grid. With this new program, government expects that at least 20% of the consumers produce electricity on their own. India wind energy policy has developers apprehensive about country’s first wind energy auction: Project developers are apprehensive about India’s latest wind energy policy which calls for large-scale auction of projects. The uncertainty amongst wind energy project developers in India originates from the fact that there is lack of clarity on the extension of crucial incentives like the accelerated depreciation and generation-based incentive. These two support mechanisms have been the sole driver of wind energy expansion in India. Indonesia could see 19% returns on solar Feed-in Tariffs: Indonesia may soon become a budding solar power market as feed-in tariffs recently announced by the government are expected to yield very attractive returns for developers. The Minister for Energy in the southern state of Karnataka recently told media outlets that construction on a proposed 5 GW solar power park will begin soon. The Pavagada solar power park is among the more than two dozen solar power parks with cumulative capacity of almost 20 GW approved by the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy. According to media reports, the Airports Authority of India (AAI) has installed solar power panels on the cargo complex of the Chennai airport. The solar power system is believed to have installed capacity of 5 MW and will generate enough electricity to meet 80% of the cargo terminal’s power demand. Engie subsidiaries will develop 400 MW of solar in Chile: Engie Energia Chile and Solairedirect, subsidiaries of French utility Engie, have announced plans to jointly develop 400 MW of solar power in Chile. South Africa could have 5.6 GW of wind capacity by 2020: The research and consulting firm GlobalData report states that more than 3 GW wind energy is expected to be installed by 2020 which will bring country’s cumulative wind capacity to 5.6 GW. The company apparently intends for the launch of the new insurance policy to move forward “the discussion around who or what is liable in the event of a collision.” The policy was designed “for people who may have driverless or autonomous features in their existing car, or who may be thinking of buying a new car with driverless or autopilot features such as Tesla’s forthcoming Model 3.” The trip — which has been dubbed Route 57 — involved 2,500 miles of travel through England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland; through various scenic towns, national parks, cities, etc. The trip was blogged about in great detail by the driver, Jess Shanahan. Orange EV taking orders for its new T-Series all-electric terminal truck: The new T-Series electric terminal trucks build on the company’s initial T-Series trucks (capable of up to 24 hours of operation per charge), which have now been deployed at various sites in the manufacturing, shipping, retail distribution, warehouse, railroad inter-modal, and waste management industries. And buyers could qualify for up to $120,000 in incentives: Orange EV has announced that organizations and businesses operating fleets in California will now be able to receive up to $120,000 in incentives towards the purchase of new T-Series all-electric Class 8 terminal trucks with extended-duty battery packs. Tom Moloughney is an avid electric car advocate. Two years ago, he purchased a BMW i3 with the 0.65 liter onboard two cylinder range extender gasoline engine. 27 months later, he has 56,000 miles on the odometer. He says 96% of those miles have been done on electric power alone. He has purchased about 50 gallons of gasoline for the car, which works out to be more than 1,000 miles per gallon. Mercedes will market its EVs under the EQ brand: No self respecting premium auto company would dive into the deep end of the electric car pool without dreaming up some snazzy new title to define its EV brand. BMW started it with its “i” division. Audi followed along with its E-Tron models. Now Mercedes has all but confirmed that it will market its electric cars under the EQ brand. 90% of Chinese EV startups could be wiped out: Soon, entrepreneurs will need a license from the government to become an automobile manufacturer. (Existing companies like SAIC and BYD will not need to apply for licenses.) According to reports, no more than 10 licenses will be issued — a very small number for such a large country. “There are too many entrants in the sector, and some of them are just speculators,” said Yin Chengliang, a professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Institute of Automotive Engineering. “The government has to raise the threshold. It’s bad to see irrational investments in projects with low technology levels.” The summer doldrums are almost over and the world of automobiles is about to get re-energized as the new auto show season kicks off in Paris in September. Citroen has gotten the buzz started early by showing off its latest creation, the CXperience large sedan concept. Sadly, it looks at though the Citroen design team has been heavily influenced by the new Toyota Prius. That is not meant as a compliment. Speaking with MSNBC host Chris Hayes recently. Elon Musk said he is pessimistic about slowing or reversing the effects of carbon pollution on global climate change. Doing so will require an effective means of pricing carbon emissions agreed to and implemented by all nations, he told Hayes. In his remarks, Musk made reference to what economists call The Tragedy of the Commons. There are two kinds of automatic braking systems — one designed to avoid forward collisions and one that only tries to minimize the damage from one. Which is which? How do you know which system your car is fitted with? And what are you, the driver, supposed to do — or not do — if the car ahead stops short suddenly or a pedestrian steps into your path?   Drive an electric car? Complete one of our short surveys for our next electric car report.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  

Buyukyildiz G.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Pion O.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Hildebrandt C.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Sedlmayr M.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems | Year: 2017

Reliable knowledge of specific driver characteristics is important for the adaptation of assistance systems to the driver. The increased safety and comfort based on this knowledge can improve customer acceptance. This study presents a method of identifying specific driver characteristics, i.e. a personal 'fingerprint'. This can be used to draw conclusions about the driving style, age and performance of the driver. To identify the fingerprint, the driver is classified based on the individual driver behaviour, and longitudinal and lateral control behaviour are analysed. The method of identifying the driving style and its implementation into the vehicle using a 'driving style identifier' are the main focuses of this paper. To improve the identifier, lane camera and radar data is taken into account in addition to vehicle signals, such as velocity, longitudinal and lateral acceleration. Several examples of the process of determining the objective parameters from longitudinal and lateral control behaviour are illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Chen H.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Li L.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Schudeleit M.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Lange A.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | And 3 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2017

In view of the rapidly increasing complexity of conventional as well as hybrid powertrains, a systematic composition platform seeking for the global optimum powertrain is presented in this paper. The platform can be mainly divided into three parts: the synthesis of the transmission, the synthesis of the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the optimization and evaluation of the entire powertrain. In regard to the synthesis of transmission concepts, a systematical and computer-aided tool suitable both for conventional und hybrid transmissions is developed. With this tool, all the potential transmission concepts, which can realize the desired driving modes or ratios, can be synthesized based on the vehicle data and requirements. As a result of the transmission synthesis, the detailed information of each transmission concept, including the transmission structure, the shifting logic, the estimated efficiency in each gear, and the estimated space arrangement of the transmission can be given out. The synthesis of transmission concepts is complemented by a comprehensive tool able to synthesize internal combustion engines of gasoline and gasoline/Atkinson type. The ICE synthesis precalculates frictional and thermodynamic engine behavior and is validated by an ad hoc created database of 250 engines, which serves as a comparison. Design parameters are deducted from this database in order to minimize the number of input parameters for the ICE synthesis. The result of the ICE synthesis is a map of the specific fuel consumption or an effective efficiency map. The tool is implemented as a function to the overall powertrain synthesis and will be triggered by an optimizer during the future development progress. Successively, the two synthesizing tools are joined to compose complete powertrains. Each powertrain concept consists of design parameters and corresponding configurations of synthesized ICE and transmissions. By varying these parameters, the different powertrains are further optimized and evaluated in consideration of the system efficiency and vehicle dynamics within the driving cycle. Copyright © 2017 SAE International.

Czapnik B.,Volkswagen AG | Sarioglu I.L.,Volkswagen AG | Schroder H.,Volkswagen AG | Kucukay F.,Institute of Automotive Engineering
International Journal of Vehicle Design | Year: 2015

Alternative vehicle powertrain systems are currently the most promising solutions to meet the energetic and ecological challenges in the individual mobility. To accomplish the keen competition, considering the decreasing lead time and costs for a vehicle design and the aim to develop the optimal powertrain design, methods that ensure a quick evaluation of various configurations of a powertrain system are required. Although utilising powertrain simulation models is a common approach in powertrain design, there is a need for quick generalised analytical models. In this paper, an analytical model is developed using the example of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with the aim of a quick exploration of powertrain design solutions. Moreover, a comparison between the analytical method and a numerical simulative method with respect to their accuracies and complexities is shown. Finally, a Pareto frontier analysis of energy consumption, driving performance, range and cost for BEVs is accomplished. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Hu T.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Inderwisch K.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Mustafa R.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Kucukay F.,Institute of Automotive Engineering
Institution of Mechanical Engineers - VTMS 10, Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2011

Advanced thermal management of the powertrain system can improve the powertrain efficiency, fuel economy etc. Modelling the powertrain thermal system is a necessary task before starting any optimization process, and the challenge comes from the lack of parameters that are required for the model. This paper introduces a new robust identification process that is able to estimate the parameters required for the thermal model, which take the nonlinearities of the thermal model into account. After that, the process of optimizing the powertrain thermal system with the objective of improving the powertrain efficiency and reducing fuel consumption will be presented.

Zhang H.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhang H.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Song J.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Han J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Facing the demands of precise and intelligent diagnosis for engine faults, this paper applies the artificial intelligent theory, studies and realizes the application of the MOBP neural network on the intelligent diagnosis for engine faults. As is proved by the experiments, the training time based on the MOBP neural network is shorter than traditional methods, and the reasoning efficiency is significantly improved. It is confirmed that the study of the intelligent fault diagnosis for engine based on the MOBP neural network is practical. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Maczak J.,Institute of Automotive Engineering
Engineering Asset Management Review | Year: 2013

In civil engineering structural health monitoring, various methods of technical state assessment are used on the basis of comparative dynamic, tensometric, magnetic and optic-fibre measurements. All these measurement methods allow for stress assessment in critical fragments of structures which are vital for the structures' stability and durability. The evolution of defects in construction causes measurable changes in dynamic properties along with changes in stress distribution in critical construction joints. Additionally, materials which could threaten a catastrophe caused by fatigue wear, exceeding stress limits or the emergence of plastic deformations, have magnetic properties which could affect the local magnetic field. The latter seems to be a very promising way of assessing global stress in ferromagnetic materials. In this paper, the concept of a distributed diagnostic system capable of monitoring the technical state of critical elements of large infrastructure objects like bridges, steel trusses, supermarket buildings and exhibition halls will be discussed. Adaptation of such systems is vital for on-line assessment of the technical state of infrastructure objects and could limit the possibility of catastrophic disasters resulting in the loss of human life. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012.

Durukan Beduk M.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Caliskan K.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Henze R.,Institute of Automotive Engineering | Kucukay F.,Institute of Automotive Engineering
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering | Year: 2013

The general approach in vehicle dynamics analysis is to use mint state characteristics of the chassis components in vehicle simulation models. However, some of the chassis components are vulnerable to damage which might induce drastic changes in component characteristics. A comprehensive vehicle stability analysis should, therefore, account for the changing characteristics of the components. In the literature, such analyses exist only for slowly-developing damper wear cases. In recent years, there has been an increase in the popularity of controlled dampers. These dampers include an increased number of structural elements and their characteristics depend on the control current supplied by a complex control system. In this study, the effect of sudden shifts in controlled damper characteristics on the stability of the vehicles is examined in detail. Two different types of damper-characteristic shifts are taken into account; the first one is a soft-to-hard transition that takes place due to control current cut-off and the other is a hard-to-soft transition originating from failure of the mechanical components in the damper. A detailed vehicle simulation model is developed, verified and used to simulate different driving manoeuvres where damper failure might affect vehicle stability. The analysis is extended to a vehicle configuration employing a simple ESP structure in order to observe the effects of chassis control systems in minimizing the effects of the damper failure. The results obtained in this study show that the failure of a damper might lead to vehicle instability in some critical driving situations for vehicles lacking advanced chassis control systems. © Institute of Automotive Engineering, Germany 2013.

Ye Y.,Institute of Mechanical Engineering | Kang L.,Institute of Automotive Engineering
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

Grinding test was carried out to study the grinding of granite with single diamond grain. Forces were measured to investigate the mean normal and tangential forces acted on the diamond grain. The relationship between the forces and either spindle speed or the maximum thickness of the undeformed chip produced by a diamond grain was discussed. The digital models of granite were constructed by discrete element method. Based on the model, two-dimensional and 3-D analysis was carried out to simulate the grinding process with the single diamond grain. The simulation results were compared with experimental data, and some useful conclusions were obtained: the 3-D results agree well with the experiment data at the same Vs and large hmax as well as the same hmax and large Vs; the 3-D and 2-D results are comparable to the experiment data at other machining parameters. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

News Article | August 31, 2016

Never forget that China has a “managed economy.” The national government may have embraced elements of capitalism a generation ago, but the country’s leaders are well aware of the problems that can result if capitalism is allowed to run wild. “Boom or bust” syndrome is something the government thinks is bad for the economy in general and especially bad for the burgeoning electric car industry. To date, more than 200 Chinese startups have announced plans to build an electric car. 100 years ago, every blacksmith and bicycle mechanic in the world was busy building an automobile in the barn at night. Then they started companies to manufacture their creations. Worldwide, thousands if not tens of thousands of nascent car companies have failed over the last century or more. China looks at the money investors lost backing all those companies that never were. From its managed economy perspective, it thinks funneling more investment into companies that are economically viable is better for the nation than throwing good money after bad and letting market forces determine the winners and losers. Today in China, every refrigerator manufacturer, moped maker, and backyard tinkerer is jumping into the electric vehicle game. A lot of that frenzy of enthusiasm is fueled by generous government incentives that make “new energy vehicles” affordable for the masses. Those incentives can amount to as much as 60% of the sticker price of a new energy car, which has sparked a huge demand from the public. Right now in China, more than 4000 new models of electric cars are under development. Many of those small companies have no experience building automobiles. Their cars are shoddily made and service after the sale is non-existent. The government of China says it will now pick the winners itself. Soon, entrepreneurs will need a license from the government to become an automobile manufacturer. (Existing companies like SAIC and BYD will not need to apply for licenses.) According to reports, no more than 10 licenses will be issued — a very small number for such a large country. “There are too many entrants in the sector, and some of them are just speculators,” said Yin Chengliang, a professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Institute of Automotive Engineering. “The government has to raise the threshold. It’s bad to see irrational investments in projects with low technology levels.” 335,000 new energy vehicles were sold in China last year. By 2025, the government wants that number to rise to 3,000,000 vehicles a year. It will be boom times for whichever companies survive the permitting process. China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology published a draft policy document for public comment this month. It listed 17 technologies that companies that intend to sell electric cars must have in order to ensure “healthy” development of the industry. The factors include a control system for the performance and stability of any new energy vehicle, an information system that tracks the sources and conditions of key parts, and a process for recycling or reusing batteries. Citing unnamed sources, Economic Daily, an official newspaper run by the State Council, says 90% of the companies currently developing EV platforms won’t be able to meet the standards in two years. A lot of money has been invested in those companies already. “There’s definitely a bubble,” said Yale Zhang, a managing director at researcher Autoforesight Shanghai Co. “If you don’t own the core technology and can’t build up the brand, it’s ‘game over’ very quickly once you burn through the cash.”   Drive an electric car? Complete one of our short surveys for our next electric car report.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  

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