Institute of Atmospheric Environment

Shenyang, China

Institute of Atmospheric Environment

Shenyang, China
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Wang Y.,Henan University of Science and Technology | Zhou L.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Zhou L.,State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather | Jia Q.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Yu W.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2017

Water use efficiency (WUE) of rice paddy fields is very important because of the increasing demand for crop production and increasing scarcity of water for irrigation. The seasonal dynamics of WUE and their environmental controls were determined in a rice paddy field in Liaohe Delta, Northeast China, based on 2-year period (2013–2014) eddy-covariance flux and meteorological measurements. The annual and growing-season ecosystem water use efficiency (eWUE) of the paddy field were 1.00 g C kg−1 H2O and 1.35 g C kg−1 H2O (two-year average), respectively. The seasonal variation of eWUE showed an asymmetric single-peak curve. The leaf area index (LAI) was the dominant regulator of evapotranspiration-based WUE; however, the VPD was the most important controlling factor of transpiration-based WUE. The significant positive control of LAI on evapotranspiration-based WUE was likely caused by its strong regulation of the ratio of transpiration (TR) to evapotranspiration (ET). The residual WUE (calculated from the WUE subtracted from the modeled WUE using the relationship between the WUE and LAI) was negatively correlated with net radiation (Rn). The WUE was generally higher under cloudy conditions than under clear conditions. Based on a comparison of the four WUE indicators, the separation of ET to TR and soil evaporation (ES), as well as the incorporation of the nonlinear effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on WUE, would both greatly improve the performances of WUE indicators in rice paddy fields. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Yin H.,Peking University | Li Z.,Peking University | Li Z.,Key Laboratory of Resources Remote Sensing and Digital Agriculture | Wang Y.,Peking University | Cai F.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment
Acta Geographica Sinica | Year: 2011

Desertification is one of the serious threats to the environment in arid and semi-arid northern China. In order to understand inter-annual vegetation dynamics, vegetation indicators have been widely used in desertification assessment. In this study, rain use efficiency (RUE) derived from hyper-temporal remote sensing images has been used for desertification assessment. Based on time-series analysis, this study focused on how the desertification developed in Inner Mongolia and how the desertification reversed in the extremely arid environment. Results showed that during the past 11 years, there was no significant desertification development in Inner Mongolia. Parts of area showed a significant increase trend of RUE, especially in the eastern part of Ordos Plateau and southern Daqing Mountain, as well as the region from the Greater Hinggan Mountains to northern Yanshan Mountains. It is indicated that the ecological conditions in these areas have tended to be much better than before. The reason may be that the vegetation protection policies adopted in northern China have exerted a positive effect on the local environment. The results also showed that there was a significant relationship between rainfall and vegetation restoration, areas with more precipitation tend to be more easily restored, especially in the areas with more 300 mm precipitation. In addition, the research on desertification reversion showed that the desert edge region in western Inner Mongolia have changed intensively, and desertification reverse assessment needs to be further examined.

Li X.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Zhang H.,Peking University
Aeolian Research | Year: 2015

Particle size distributions (psds) of airborne dust (PM20) during different dust emission events are investigated in this study, using data obtained from a dust-event monitoring station in the Horqin Sandy Land in Inner Mongolia, China. The results show that for a weak saltation-bombardment and aggregate-disintegration dust emission (SADE) event (0.44*<0.47ms-1) on 7 April 2012, dust aerosols ≤1μm in diameter (d) accounted for 80% for all dusts measured. While for a strong SADE event (0.85*<0.89ms-1) on the same day, large dust aerosols (d≥2.5μm) increased significantly, with the largest proportion (40%) located in 4-7μm, which agreed with the airborne dust psds observed during another two strong SADE events (mean u*=0.78 and 0.68ms-1) on 13-14 April 2013. However, for a convective turbulent dust emission (CTDE) event (mean u*=0.31ms-1) on 17 April 2013, the mean proportion of dust aerosols <0.45μm reached 70%, which suggests that only fine dust particles loosely distributed at the surface could be easily uplifted into the atmosphere by convective turbulence. It found that the airborne dust psds at emission move to the larger sizes with the increasing u*, but they remain unchanged when u* doesn't change too much. In addition, the dust psds for a non-local dust event on 19 April 2012 appeared smoother because of the mixing of dust aerosols through the processes of dust advection and deposition. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Li R.-P.,CAS Institute of Botany | Li R.-P.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li R.-P.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Zhou G.-S.,CAS Institute of Botany | Zhou G.-S.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Plant phenology models, especially leafing models, play critical roles in evaluating the impact of climate change on the primary production of temperate plants. Existing models based on temperature alone could not accurately simulate plant leafing in arid and semi-arid regions. The objective of the present study was to test the suitability of the existing temperature-based leafing models in arid and semi-arid regions, and to develop a temperature-precipitation based leafing model (TP), based on the long-term (i.e., 12-27 years) ground leafing observation data and meteorological data in Northeast China. The better simulation of leafing for all the plant species in Northeast China was given by TP with the fixed starting date (TPn) than with the parameterized starting date (TPm), which gave the smallest average root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.21 days. Tree leafing models were validated with independent data, and the coefficient of determination (R 2) was greater than 0.60 in 75% of the estimates by TP and the spring warming model (SW) with the fixed starting date. The average RMSE of herb leafing simulated by TPn was 5.03 days, much lower than other models (&9.51 days), while the average R 2 of TPn and TPm were 0.68 and 0.57, respectively, much higher than the other models (<0.22). It indicates that TPn is a universal model and more suitable for simulating leafing of trees and herbs than the prior models. Furthermore, water is an important factor determining herb leafing in arid and semi-arid temperate regions. © 2012 Li, Zhou.

Zhao H.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Zhao H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhao H.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Che H.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

The special and temporal characteristics of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent (Alpha) were analyzed by using the data from a CE318 sun-photometer at Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun in urban and industrial region of northeastern China. The high AODs over Shenyang and Fushun occurred in the summer and winter with two peaks. In contrast, the monthly averaged AODs at Anshan and Benxi have a single peak distribution. The AOD frequency distribution at Shenyang and Benxi can be well fit by a bi-modal normal distribution with r2=0.94 and 0.91. The AOD frequency distribution at Anshan and Fushun have identical peak value at approximately 0.40. The seasonal AOD at Benxi is larger than the other three stations, and the seasonal Alpha at Shenyang is the largest of all stations followed by Anshan, Fushun and Benxi. An analysis of the AOD and Alpha scatterplots suggests that the aerosol size in Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun can be affected by both fine and coarse particles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cai F.,Institute of atmospheric environment | Zhou G.S.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Ming H.Q.,Liaoning Province Meteorological Service Center | Li R.P.,Institute of atmospheric environment
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Based on continuous observation data of 16 m gradient weather observation tower from 2006 to 2008 at Jinzhou agricultural ecosystem research station, dynamic characteristics of aerodynamic parameters roughness (z0) and zero-plane displacement(d) over a rainfed maize agroecosystem and their relationships with controlling factors during growing seasons are analyzed. The results showed that d appears about 10 days after jointing when plant height (h) is about 1.40 m and increases from 0.80-1.00 m to 1.00-1.40 m after tasseling stage. z0 is smaller than 0.20 m before tasseling stage and comes to the maximum about 0.4m before and after milk stage. d / h and z0 / h are 0.40-0.54 and 0.10-0.14, and are decreasing and increasing with LAI, respectively, before h comes to the maximum. Before d appears, negative exponent and positive linear relationships between z0 and wind speed at 2 m (u2), z0 and LAI or h are found. Yet, after d appears, relationship between u2 and z0 +d is more notable than those between u2 and z0 or d. At the same time, positive exponent relationships between z0 or d and LAI or h respectively are found. LAI and h influence more to z0 than to d and z0 +d with greater role for the latter. Those relationships are more conspicuous from d appearing to h coming to the maximum. These research conclusions will play an important reference role for setting up aerodynamic parameterization and improving land surface process model.

Li X.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Jia Q.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Liu J.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Liu J.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

Seasonal variations in sensible heat flux (Hs), latent heat flux (LE), and CO2 flux (Fc) during 2006 over a reed wetland ecosystem in Northeast China, as well as their relationships with environmental factors, were investigated based on micrometeorological observations and turbulence data, measured using the eddy covariance technique. The results showed that the LE values were significantly larger (>400 W m-2) in summer (June, July, and August) than those in other seasons because of the summertime abundant precipitation and strong evapotranspiration, whereas the Hs values were smaller (<100 W m-2) in summer but larger in spring (>300 W m-2) and autumn (>200 W m-2). The cumulative evapotranspiration in 2006 was 577.1 mm that was mostly controlled by radiation at surface throughout the whole year but also limited by water supply during the non-growing season. Most of the Fc values ranged between -1.0 mg m-2 s-1 (sometimes close to -2.0 mg m-2 s-1) during daytime and 0.3 mg m-2 s-1 at night during the growing season (May to September) but varied around zero in the non-growing season, and the CO2 mass concentration was in the range of 600-800 mg m-3. Monthly cumulative CO2 flux for the growing season was negatively largest in July (-520 mg m-2 month-1) and smallest in May (-65 mg m-2 month-1), making this reed wetland a net CO2 sink in 2006. The daytime CO2 flux in the growing season was positively correlated with atmospheric stability |z/L| under unstable condition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and wind speed, but depended less on air temperature, relative humidity and soil water content on a several-day time scale. However, over a longer time scale, a comparison of March-April conditions during 2005 and 2006 suggested that cooler conditions can result in reduced CO2 production before the growing season. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Li Y.,Meteorological Observation Center | Zhao H.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Wu Y.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2015

Mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM), including PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10, were measured from October 13th to November 30th 2013 at eight sites in Northeast China to evaluate their variations during pollution periods. Five major pollution periods were identified during the autumn of 2013. The maximum daily average PM2.5 concentrations were 437 ± 85 μg/m3 and 322 ± 50 μg/m3 in Harbin and Shenyang, respectively. The minimum was 75 ± 28 μg/m3 in Dandong. The presence of finer particles was significantly related to visibility degradation during pollution periods. Wind speeds had a negative correlation with PM concentrations, while high relative humidity (RH) favored the formation of haze in Northeast China. Visibility on non-hazy days was approximately 2.5–3.0 times greater than that on hazy days. During hazy days, the PM1.0:PM2.5 ratios were 0.89 ± 0.04, 0.85 ± 0.04 and 0.91 ± 0.04 at Anshan, Shenyang and Dandong, respectively. These results show that PM1.0 was the dominant particle pollutant in Northeast China during periods of pollution. High RH and low wind speeds during hazy days may favor the accumulation of atmospheric pollutants. The results of this study provide useful information toward recognizing air pollution episode characteristics in Northeast China. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research.

Zhao H.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Zhao H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhao H.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Che H.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Pollution Research | Year: 2013

The visibility data from 2010 to 2012 were obtained at Shenyang in Northeast China and the relations between visibility, PM mass concentration and meteorological variables were statistically analyzed. These results demonstrate that the monthly-averaged visibility over Shenyang was higher in March and September with values of approximately 19.0±4.3 km and 17.1±4.3 km, respectively. Low visibility over Shenyang occurred in January at approximately 11.0±4.7 km. Among the meteorological variables considered, wind speed was the main meteorological factor that influenced visibility and PM mass concentrations. The relation between visibility and PM indicates that fine particles are already a main source of pollutants, the existence of which is the most important factor in the deterioration of visibility in an urban area of Northeast China. The study also shows an obvious diurnal variation and weekend effects of visibility and PM, which are mainly caused by human activities. Results of this study highlight the significant impact of fine particles on air pollution and visibility in an urban area of Northeast China. © Author(s) 2013.

Ma Y.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Liu N.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Hong Y.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Wang Y.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment | Zhang Y.,Institute of Atmospheric Environment
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2012

Using data of a dust weather process in Liaoning during 11th~12th May 2011, the impacts on various particle sizes and the air quality caused by the dust weather and the cause of this dust weather process were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1 were quite different before and after the dust weather process. When the dust weather occurred, the hourly maximum mass concentration of PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1 increased 1.5~20 times in the 4 cities of Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Dandong. The number concentrations of the coarse particles PM (2.5~10) increased 30~41 times and the quality concentrations increased 27~30 times. The number of concentrations of the fine particles PM (1~2.5) increased 27~30 times, and the mass concentrations increased 15~30 times. In addition, the number concentration and mass concentration of the ultrafine particle of PM 1 in each city were also different. The number concentrations of the ultrafine particles PM 1 increased 3 times, and the mass concentrations increased 5 times in Shenyang. But the number concentrations of the ultrafine particles PM 1 decreased 50%, and the mass concentrations decreased 10% in Anshan. Moreover, influenced by Mongolia Cyclone, the weather of Inner Mongolia became blustery and temperature dropped. The dust in Inner Mongolia was brought by the wind to high altitude and transported to Liaoning by westerlies. As surface wind speed in Liaoning was weak, floating dust influenced most parts of Liaoning, and the air quality in Liaoning was seriously affected. Except Dandong, air quality in the other 13 cities in Liaoning all reached the mild to serious pollution level. The air pollution index was more than 300 in Tieling, Fuxin, Shenyang and Fushun. Thus, air quality reached serious pollution level.

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