Institute of Arid Areas

Medenine, Tunisia

Institute of Arid Areas

Medenine, Tunisia
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Zouari S.,Institute of Arid Areas | Najjaa H.,Institute of Arid Areas | Najjaa H.,University of Sfax | Neffati M.,Institute of Arid Areas | Ammar E.,University of Sfax
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2012

This study deals with the chemical characterization of a medicinal and an aromatic plant of the Tunisian flora: Allium roseum var. odoratissimum, and aimed to identify new bioactive natural compounds in its flower essential oil. These compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and were analyzed by GC and GC/MS, using an apolar column. The most important compounds characterized were organo-sulphurous (46%), including methyl 2-propenyl trisulfide, di-2-propenyl trisulfide, di-1-propenyl disulfide, di-2-propenyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, methyl 2-propenyl disulfide, and di-1-propenyl trisulfide, found as 10.75, 9.07, 5.81, 4.98, 3.90, 3.30, and 2.53%, respectively. Moreover, heneicosane and pentacosane were identified for the first time at relatively high rates (8.18 and 4.49%, respectively) in the Allium roseum essential oil. This essential oil composition exhibited newly identified sulphurous compounds at relatively high rates (46.53%) when compared with what was found while using polar column. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Debouba M.,Gabes University | Balti R.,Gabes University | Balti R.,University of Sfax | Hwiwi S.,Gabes University | Zouari S.,Institute of Arid Areas
International Journal of Phytomedicine | Year: 2012

Cistanche violacea is an Orobanchaceae holoparsite hosting chenopodiaceous, including Zygophyllum album. While Cistanche violacea, is known to have edible uses in the folk medicine, no data have been reported before. In the present study, chemical assays were undertaken in order to emphasize the Cistanche violacea antioxidant capacity and total phenols richness. Our data showed higher phenolic contents were measured in Cistanche flowers and Zygophyllum leaves, however Cistanche bulb was the most enriched in flavonoïds. Antioxidant activities were evaluated in methanolic extract of Cistanche violacea flowers and bulb among the host Zygophyllum album leaves. Cistanche flowers and Zygophyllum leaves exhibited the strongest scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) activity. The metal chelating activity was the highest in Cistanche bulb and Zygophyllum leaves compared to Cistanche flowers. Conversely, the ferric reducing power was significantly higher in Cistanche flowers relative to its bulb and Zygophyllum leaves.

Zouari S.,National School of Management | Zouari S.,Institute of Arid Areas | Ketata M.,National School of Management | Ketata M.,University of Sfax | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

This study deals with the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Allium roseum L. a chemotype growing wild in Tunisia, to evidence new bioactive natural compounds in its flower essential oil, and to investigate possible antioxidative methanolic leaves extract properties. This essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main compounds were butylated hydroxytoluene, eugenol, farnesol, dimethyl trisulfide, methyl 2-propenyl trisulfide, Z-9-octadecenoic acid and tricosane found at respectively 10.0%, 8.4%, 6.9%, 6.1%, 5.3%, 5.2% and 4.8%. Moreover, 1-oxa-4,6-diazacyclooctane-5-thione (3.9%) was isolated for the first time in the Tunisian A. roseum, especially in the country central area (Sfax City). The methanolic leaves extract had antioxidant activities, assessed by two complementary tests: the DPPH radical-scavenging and the reducing power essays, when compared with those of butylated hydroxy anisole and ascorbic acid. These antioxidant activities and the essential oil profile would be a fingerprint for chemotype discrimination. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Fairouz D.,Institute of Arid Areas | Sami Z.,Institute of Arid Areas | Mekki B.,BP 802 | Mohamed N.,Institute of Arid Areas
Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants | Year: 2013

Periploca angustifolia Labill. is a multipurpose (ecological, pastoral and therapeutic) native shrub of the Mediterranean basin. Periploca leaves were used, for a long time, by the local population as decoction or infusion to treat digestive disorders. Root bark, known by their hypotensive property, is used as infusion with the tea. The resin, exuded by roots after section, is used as masticator having a good smell when burned. The ethnobotanical value of this shrub incited us to develop the present work having as objective to determine the chemical composition of the root bark of P. angustifolia, at the flowering stage. The main results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of C-Heterosids (Anthracenic derivatives), anthocyans, saponins, free quinons and proanthocyanidols. Quantitative analysis of P. angustifolia's root bark, showed that it has relatively high amount on crude proteins (1.46 mg/g DM) and fatty matter (1.05 mg/g DM), as well as some secondary metabolites such us condensed tannins (3189.8 mgCE/100g DM), polyphenol content (2.6 mgGAE/g DM), carotenoids (0.27 mg/g DM), anthocyanins (1.8 mg/g DM) and flavonoids (4.1 mgQE/g DM). The analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed many volatiles such as 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde as it is the major compound (89.23 %). © 2013 Copyright Har Krishan Bhalla & Sons.

Boudabous M.,Institute of Arid Areas | Marzouk I.B.,Institute of Arid Areas | Marzougui N.,Institute of Arid Areas | Lechiheb B.,Institute of Arid Areas | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties of 'Douce de Djerba' apple cultivar grown in Southern Tunisia, exactly in the island of Djerba (which is known for its good organoleptic qualities) to the introduced cultivars ('Golden', 'Startcrimson', 'Anna' and 'Richared') grown in the region of Sbiba (North-West of Tunisia). Apple dry matter, total soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity were measured. Composition and level of sugars, vitamin C and phenolic compounds were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The content of major (Na, K, Ca, Mg and P) and minor elements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) has been determined by using flame atomic absorption and the spectrophotometer method. The dry matter varied from 12.15% ('Anna') to 27.89% ('Douce de Djerba'), the soluble solids content was between 11.0 Brix ('Golden', 'Startcrimson', 'Richared' and 'Anna') and 12.4 Brix ('Douce de Djerba'), pH values varied from 3.81 ('Golden') to 4.25 ('Richared') and the titratable acidity content (g 100 g-1) varied from 0.20 ('Richared') to 0.31 ('Golden'). The values of the vitamin C content (mg/g) ranged from 2.93 ('Anna') to 5.63 ('Douce de Djerba'). For all cultivars studied, the peel of the apple is richer in vitamin C than the pulp. Quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds revealed differences between pulp and peel in all cases studied. The highest levels of phenolic compounds were found in the peel. Chlorogenic acid was the major peak in the pulp for all apple cultivars studied. Significant differences were observed in the mineral contents of the apple samples. This difference between mineral contents and cultivars is reported in the literature and a comparison has been carried out with diverse fruits. In generally, apples are rich in macroelements (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) while the microelements (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) are in the form of traces. All results suggested that genotype is the main factor that determines the composition of bioactive compounds in apples and this provides important information on how to make the best use of the apple cultivars investigated.

Najjaa H.,Institute of Arid Areas | Najjaa H.,National School of Management | Zouari S.,Institute of Arid Areas | Ammar E.,National School of Management | Neffati M.,Institute of Arid Areas
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Allium roseum L. var. odoratissimum, a North African endemic species, grows in the Southeast of Tunisia and is used as a vegetable, spice or herbal remedy in traditional medicine. This study deals with the phytochemical analyses and antimicrobial activity screening of A. roseum leaves. Aqueous extracts (maceration, digestion, decoction and infusion) and organic extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and ethanol) were screened for their phytochemical antibacterial activity. Phytochemical screening of A. roseum showed the presence of antimicrobial active compounds such as saponins, tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, cardiotonic glycosides, free quinone and iridoids. The dichloromethane, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of A. roseum exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Such results may establish a good support to the use of this plant in herbal medicine and a base for the development of new drugs and phytomedicine. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Nabozhenko M.V.,RAS Murmansk Marine Biological Institute | Kovalenko E.P.,Institute of Arid Areas
Oceanology | Year: 2011

The contemporary distribution of macrozoobenthic communities of the Yeisk estuary is considered. Four basic types of communities are classified. Communities with domination of Tubificidae (Oligochaeta) occupy the greatest part of the estuary. Communities with domination of Amphipoda (Corophiidae) remained only in the northeast part of the reservoir. The unstable hydrological conditions and the absence of clearly expressed horohalinicum lead to mixing of Ponto-Caspian and Azov-Black Sea faunas in the Yeisk estuary. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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