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Karin Y.G.,Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics | Balkov E.V.,Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics | Pozdnyakova O.A.,Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography
Geophysics 2014 - 10th EAGE International Scientific and Practical Conference and Exhibition on Engineering and Mining Geophysics | Year: 2014

For a long time archeologists use geophysical methods in exploration of archeological monuments with goal to improve the quality of work and reduce labor costs. in 2013 carried out a field investigation in polytypic archeological monuments in Vengerovo district, Novosibirsk region, which relate to wide chronological range from the Neolithic to the Early Iron Age: Vengerovo-2, Stariy Tartas-5, Tartas-1, Yashkino-1 (Barabinsk forest-steppe). the most part of archeological and geophysical researches was carried out on the monuments, where have been previously installed instances of discrepancies between archaeological and geophysical data. in really bad conditions for magnetic survey advantages of complex approach allow to designate the prospects of receiving results by electrical prospecting method. in laboratory conditions, was carried out a detailed geochemical study of substance. Obtained results allow to conclude, that hydrogeological characteristics of material at measurements moment influence on archeological objects electromagnetic survey efficacy. To identify objects should be surveyed during significant soil moisture (after rain season or snowmelt).

Dryomov S.V.,Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology | Nazhmidenova A.M.,Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology | Shalaurova S.A.,Novosibirsk State University | Morozov I.V.,Novosibirsk State University | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2015

The patterns of prehistoric migrations across the Bering Land Bridge are far from being completely understood: there still exists a significant gap in our knowledge of the population history of former Beringia. Here, through comprehensive survey of mitochondrial DNA genomes retained in 'relic' populations, the Maritime Chukchi, Siberian Eskimos, and Commander Aleuts, we explore genetic contribution of prehistoric Siberians/Asians to northwestern Native Americans. Overall, 201 complete mitochondrial sequences (52 new and 149 published) were selected in the reconstruction of trees encompassing mtDNA lineages that are restricted to Coastal Chukotka and Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and the Aleutian chain. Phylogeography of the resulting mtDNA genomes (mitogenomes) considerably extends the range and intrinsic diversity of haplogroups (eg, A2a, A2b, D2a, and D4b1a2a1) that emerged and diversified in postglacial central Beringia, defining independent origins of Neo-Eskimos versus Paleo-Eskimos, Aleuts, and Tlingit (Na-Dene). Specifically, Neo-Eskimos, ancestral to modern Inuit, not only appear to be of the High Arctic origin but also to harbor Altai/Sayan-related ancestry. The occurrence of the haplogroup D2a1b haplotypes in Chukotka (Sireniki) introduces the possibility that the traces of Paleo-Eskimos have not been fully erased by spread of the Neo-Eskimos or their descendants. Our findings are consistent with the recurrent gene flow model of multiple streams of expansions to northern North America from northeastern Eurasia in late Pleistocene-early Holocene. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Haesaerts P.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Damblon F.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Drozdov N.,Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography | Checha V.,Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography | And 2 more authors.
Radiocarbon | Year: 2014

The chronology of long Upper Pleistocene loess sequences in Eurasia is based on combined pedostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating of high-quality charcoal. The accuracy of such a chronology depends on the reproducibility and precision of the 14C dates. However, certain dates may show discrepancies with regard to their chronostratigraphic context based on series of coherent dates. In order to evaluate the consistency and variation in the 14C dates obtained from small charcoal pieces, this question was tested on a set of spruce wood remains with well-preserved tree rings found in the Middle Pleniglacial loess-loam sequence of Kurtak (central Siberia). Tree-ring analysis of five fairly large wood pieces from three successive layers, dated to about 30.0, 30.8, and 32.2-32.5 ka BP previously, was done by continuous sampling of 90-150 rings on each wood piece. This enabled direct comparison of the succession of tree rings with the 14C dates. A total of 133 dates was obtained for the five wood pieces. The results show fluctuations in the 14C dates within a time range between 1000 and 2000 yr. Four possible causes for such variation will be discussed herein: (1) internal variability of the AMS dating method; (2) outliers; (3) variations in the 14C background; and (4) external factors such as past atmospheric 14C variations. © 2014 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Haesaerts P.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Borziac I.,Institute of Archaeology | Chekha V.P.,Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography | Chirica V.,Institute of Archaeology | And 6 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2010

The present paper concerns long Upper Pleistocene loess sequences from Eastern Europe with multiple Upper Palaeolithic occupations, rich in charcoal, as well as loess sequences from Central Siberia with abundant wood remains. These complementary records have allowed establishing a high-resolution climatic sequence integrating 24 interstadial episodes between ca 42.5 and 10 kyr BP. Here, we discuss the methodology of dating used to fix the chronological framework of this climatic sequence, based on a set of 240 available radiocarbon dates, mainly produced on charcoal and wood remains. Special attention is paid to the strategy of sampling charcoal and wood material in strict accordance with stratigraphy, as well as to the preparation process in the laboratory for extraction, cleaning, identification and selection of the best fragments to date. Careful stratigraphic drawing and detailed positioning of the samples for each geological layer are also considered in order to clarify the relationship of the obtained dates with respect to any sedimentary, pedological or archaeological event to be dated. The reliability and accuracy of the dates obtained from loess sequences are further controlled by the internal consistency with regard to stratigraphy. Palaeoenvironmental implications are also discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gladyshev S.A.,Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography | Olsen J.W.,University of Arizona | Tabarev A.V.,Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography | Jull A.J.T.,University of Arizona
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

This article reports on materials excavated and analyzed since 2008 at the multi-component open-air Tolbor-15 Site (Selenge River basin, northern Mongolia). Also discussed are problems of chronology and periodization of the Mongolian Upper Paleolithic based on radiocarbon dating, including new determinations available for the Tolbor-4 and 15 sites, along with associated archaeological materials. The early stage of the Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) in Mongolia persisted for a relatively long period and can be divided into two sub-chrons, the earliest ranging from 40 to 35,000 BP. The later stage of the Mongolian EUP, falling between 33 and 26,000 BP, is represented by assemblages from the Khangai Mountains (e.g., Tolbor-4 and 15, Orkhon-7) and the Gobi Altai district (e.g., Tsagaan Agui Cave, Chikhen Agui Rockshelter, Chikhen-2). The middle Upper Paleolithic in Mongolia has been identified only on the basis of sites in the Orkhon River valley, all of which post-date ca. 25,000 BP. The material culture of this long period is characterized by the complete replacement of blade industries by flake industries, along with the parallel development of the pressure-flaked microblade technique. The later phase of the Mongolian Upper Paleolithic is well-dated down to the end of the Pleistocene. Typical industries include those excavated at Tolbor-15, which are characterized by the predominance of microcores reduced by both pressure and percussion, the appearance of retouched points on flakes, and an increase in the number of microblades as a fraction of overall blade blanks. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

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