Aldeadávila de la Ribera, Spain
Aldeadávila de la Ribera, Spain

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Simo-Mirabet P.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Bermejo-Nogales A.,Endocrine Disruption and Toxicity of Contaminants | Calduch-Giner J.A.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Perez-Sanchez J.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal
Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology | Year: 2016

The seven sirtuin (SIRT) counterparts of higher vertebrates were identified and molecularly characterized in a farmed fish of the Sparidae family, order Perciformes. These proteins are NAD+-dependent deacetylases that couple protein deacetylation with the energy status of the cell via the cellular NAD+/NADH ratio with a strict conservation of the characteristic catalytic domain surrounded by divergent N- and C- terminal regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed three major clades corresponding to SIRT1–3, SIRT4–5, and SIRT6–7 that reflected the present hierarchy of vertebrates and the accepted classification of SIRTs. Transcriptional studies revealed a ubiquitous SIRT gene expression that was tissue-specific for each SIRT. This was evidenced by multivariate analyses, which established two main clusters corresponding to SIRTs with relatively high (SIRT1, 2, and 5) and low (SIRT3, 4, 6, and 7) gene expression levels. A nutritional regulation was also evidenced in 10-day fasted fish, and SIRT2–4 exhibited an overall downregulated expression. SIRT1, 5, 6, and 7 were mostly upregulated, although clustering analyses evidenced a highly regulated response that was different for each SIRT according to the different tissue metabolic capabilities. These findings supported the use of SIRTs alone or in combination with other biomarkers for the metabolic phenotyping of farmed fish and gilthead sea bream in particular. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Bermejo-Nogales A.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Calduch-Giner J.A.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Perez-Sanchez J.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to assess in an integrative manner the physiological regulation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in gilthead sea bream. A contig of 1,325 nucleotides in length with an open reading frame of 307 amino acids was recognized as UCP2 after searches in our transcriptome reference database ( Gene expression mapping by quantitative real-time PCR revealed a ubiquitous profile that clearly differs from that of UCP1 and UCP3 variants with the greatest abundance in liver and white skeletal muscle, respectively. The greatest abundance of UCP2 transcripts was found in the heart, with a relatively high expression level in blood cells, where UCP1 and UCP3 transcripts were practically undetectable. Functional studies revealed that UCP2 mRNA expression remains either unaltered or up-regulated upon feed restriction in glycolytic (white skeletal muscle) and highly oxidative muscle tissues (heart and red skeletal muscle), respectively. In contrast, exposure to hypoxic conditions (18-19 % oxygen saturation) markedly down-regulated the UCP2 mRNA expression in blood cells in a cellular environment with increased haematocrit, blood haemoglobin content, and circulating levels of glucose and lactate, and total plasma antioxidant activity. These findings demonstrated that UCP2 expression is highly regulated at the transcriptional level, arising this UCP variant as an important piece of the complex trade-off between metabolic and redox sensors. This feature would avoid the activation of futile cycles of energy wastage if changes in tissue oxidative and antioxidant metabolic capabilities are able to maintain the production of reactive oxygen species at a low regulated level. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Benedito-Palos L.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Ballester-Lozano G.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Perez-Sanchez J.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal
Gene | Year: 2014

Disturbances of lipid metabolism are a major problem in livestock fish and the present study analysed the different tissue expression patterns and regulations of 40 lipid-relevant genes in gilthead sea bream. Nineteen sequences, including fatty acid elongases (4), phospholipases (7), acylglycerol lipases (8) and lipase-maturating enzymes (1), were new for gilthead sea bream (GenBank, JX975700-JX975718). Up to six different lipase-related enzymes were highly expressed in adipose tissue and liver, which also showed a high expression level of δ6 and δ9 desaturases. In the brain, the greatest gene expression level was achieved by the very long chain fatty acid elongation 1, along with relatively high levels of δ9 desaturases and the phospholipase retinoic acid receptor responder. These two enzymes were also expressed at a high level in white skeletal muscle, which also shared a high expression of lipid oxidative enzymes. An overall down-regulation trend was observed in liver and adipose tissue in response to fasting following the depletion of lipid stores. The white skeletal muscle of fasted fish showed a strong down-regulation of δ9 desaturases in conjunction with a consistent up-regulation of the "lipolytic machinery" including key enzymes of tissue fatty acid uptake and mitochondrial fatty acid transport and oxidation. In contrast, the gene expression profile of the brain remained almost unaltered in fasted fish, which highlights the different tissue plasticity of lipid-related genes. Taken together, these findings provide new fish genomic resources and contribute to define the most informative set of lipid-relevant genes for a given tissue and physiological condition in gilthead sea bream. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Bermejo-Nogales A.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Nederlof M.,Wageningen University | Benedito-Palos L.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Ballester-Lozano G.F.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | And 4 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2014

The aim of the current study was to phenotype fish metabolism and the transcriptionally-mediated response of hepatic mitochondria of gilthead sea bream to intermittent and repetitive environmental stressors: (i) changes in water temperature (T-ST), (ii) changes in water level and chasing (C-ST) and (iii) multiple sensory perception stressors (M-ST). Gene expression profiling was done using a quantitative PCR array of 60 mitochondria-related genes, selected as markers of transcriptional regulation, oxidative metabolism, respiration uncoupling, antioxidant defense, protein import/folding/assembly, and mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. The mitochondrial phenotype mirrored changes in fish performance, haematology and lactate production. T-ST especially up-regulated transcriptional factors (PGC1α, NRF1, NRF2), rate limiting enzymes of fatty acid β-oxidation (CPT1A) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (CS), membrane translocases (Tim/TOM complex) and molecular chaperones (mtHsp10, mtHsp60, mtHsp70) to improve the oxidative capacity in a milieu of a reduced feed intake and impaired haematology. The lack of mitochondrial response, increased production of lactate and negligible effects on growth performance in C-ST fish were mostly considered as a switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. A strong down-regulation of PGC1α, NRF1, NRF2, CPT1A, CS and markers of mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis (BAX, BCLX, MFN2, MIRO2) occurred in M-ST fish in association with the greatest circulating cortisol concentration and a reduced lactate production and feed efficiency, which represents a metabolic condition with the highest allostatic load score. These findings evidence a high mitochondrial plasticity against stress stimuli, providing new insights to define the threshold level of stress condition in fish. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Redon S.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Amat F.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Hontoria F.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Vasileva G.P.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

Adult crustaceans of the genus Artemia (brine shrimps) are intermediate hosts in the life cycle of cestode species parasitic in aquatic birds as their definitive hosts. However, there are no data on the role of larval and juvenile brine shrimps in the transmission of avian helminth parasites. In order to examine the possible role of early developmental stages (nauplii, metanauplii and juveniles) of Artemia for the circulation of avian cestodes, the natural cestode infection in the population of Artemia parthenogenetica from La Mata Lagoon, Mediterranean coast of Spain, was studied. Metacestodes (cysticercoids) of four cestode species were recorded in adult brine shrimps: Flamingolepis liguloides and Flamingolepis flamingo (hymenolepidids parasitic in flamingos), Confluaria podicipina (a hymenolepidid species parasitic in grebes) and Eurycestus avoceti (a dilepidid species parasitic in avocets, stilts, plovers and, to a lesser extent, in flamingos). No cysticercoids were found in nauplii. Two species, F. liguloides and F. flamingo, were found in metanauplii and juvenile brine shrimps. Only 36.3% of the cysticercoids of F. liguloides occurred in adult brine shrimps; the remaining 63.7% were parasitic in metanauplii (39.6%) and juveniles (24.1%). Similarly, the metacestodes of F. flamingo were also distributed among various age groups: in adults (44.4% of cysticercoids), juveniles (27.8%) and metanauplii (27.8%). These results indicate that the early developmental stages of Artemia have an important role for the circulation of certain parasite species. No cysticercoids of C. podicipina and E. avoceti were recorded in larval and juvenile brine shrimps. The selective infestation of larval brine shrimps with flamingo parasites is probably associated with the feeding behaviour of definitive hosts, which are filtering predators; in contrast, grebes and waders pick brine shrimps individually one by one. The possible underlying mechanism for selective infestation of metanauplii and adults by certain cestode species is associated with the size of parasite eggs, allowing only cestode species with small eggs to be ingested by larval brine shrimps. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Calduch-Giner J.A.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Bermejo-Nogales A.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Benedito-Palos L.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | Estensoro I.,Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) is the main fish species cultured in the Mediterranean area and constitutes an interesting model of research. Nevertheless, transcriptomic and genomic data are still scarce for this highly valuable species. A transcriptome database was constructed by de novo assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA and collections of expressed sequence tags together with new high-quality reads from five cDNA 454 normalized libraries of skeletal muscle (1), intestine (1), head kidney (2) and blood (1).Results: Sequencing of the new 454 normalized libraries produced 2,945,914 high-quality reads and the de novo global assembly yielded 125,263 unique sequences with an average length of 727 nt. Blast analysis directed to protein and nucleotide databases annotated 63,880 sequences encoding for 21,384 gene descriptions, that were curated for redundancies and frameshifting at the homopolymer regions of open reading frames, and hosted at Among the annotated gene descriptions, 16,177 were mapped in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) database, and 10,899 were eligible for functional analysis with a representation in 341 out of 372 IPA canonical pathways. The high representation of randomly selected stickleback transcripts by Blast search in the nucleotide gilthead sea bream database evidenced its high coverage of protein-coding transcripts.Conclusions: The newly assembled gilthead sea bream transcriptome represents a progress in genomic resources for this species, as it probably contains more than 75% of actively transcribed genes, constituting a valuable tool to assist studies on functional genomics and future genome projects. © 2013 Calduch-Giner et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | University of Porto, University of Valencia, University of Algarve, Autonomous University of Barcelona and Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Infectious diseases and fish feeds management are probably the major expenses in the aquaculture business. Hence, it is a priority to define sustainable strategies which simultaneously avoid therapeutic procedures and reinforce fish immunity. Currently, one preferred approach is the use of immunostimulants which can be supplemented to the fish diets. Arginine is a versatile amino acid with important mechanisms closely related to the immune response. Aiming at finding out how arginine affects the innate immune status or improve disease resistance of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) against vibriosis, fish were fed two arginine-supplemented diets (1% and 2% arginine supplementation). A third diet meeting arginine requirement level for seabass served as control diet. Following 15 or 29 days of feeding, fish were sampled for blood, spleen and gut to assess cell-mediated immune parameters and immune-related gene expression. At the same time, fish from each dietary group were challenged against Vibrio anguillarum and survival was monitored. Cell-mediated immune parameters such as the extracellular superoxide and nitric oxide decreased in fish fed arginine-supplemented diets. Interleukins and immune-cell marker transcripts were down-regulated by the highest supplementation level. Disease resistance data were in accordance with a generally depressed immune status, with increased susceptibility to vibriosis in fish fed arginine supplemented diets. Altogether, these results suggest a general inhibitory effect of arginine on the immune defences and disease resistance of European seabass. Still, further research will certainly clarify arginine immunomodulation pathways thereby allowing the validation of its potential as a prophylactic strategy.

PubMed | Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal and Endocrine Disruption and Toxicity of Contaminants
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of comparative physiology. B, Biochemical, systemic, and environmental physiology | Year: 2016

The seven sirtuin (SIRT) counterparts of higher vertebrates were identified and molecularly characterized in a farmed fish of the Sparidae family, order Perciformes. These proteins are NAD

PubMed | University of British Columbia, Dalhousie University, New York University, University Pompeu Fabra and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current biology : CB | Year: 2015

The Opisthokonta are a eukaryotic supergroup divided in two main lineages: animals and related protistan taxa, and fungi and their allies [1, 2]. There is a great diversity of lifestyles and morphologies among unicellular opisthokonts, from free-living phagotrophic flagellated bacterivores and filopodiated amoebas to cell-walled osmotrophic parasites and saprotrophs. However, these characteristics do not group into monophyletic assemblages, suggesting rampant convergent evolution within Opisthokonta. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a new phylogenomic dataset via sequencing 12 new strains of protists. Phylogenetic relationships among opisthokonts revealed independent origins of filopodiated amoebas in two lineages, one related to fungi and the other to animals. Moreover, we observed that specialized osmotrophic lifestyles evolved independently in fungi and protistan relatives of animals, indicating convergent evolution. We therefore analyzed the evolution of two key fungal characters in Opisthokonta, the flagellum and chitin synthases. Comparative analyses of the flagellar toolkit showed a previously unnoticed flagellar apparatus in two close relatives of animals, the filasterean Ministeria vibrans and Corallochytrium limacisporum. This implies that at least four different opisthokont lineages secondarily underwent flagellar simplification. Analysis of the evolutionary history of chitin synthases revealed significant expansions in both animals and fungi, and also in the Ichthyosporea and C. limacisporum, a group of cell-walled animal relatives. This indicates that the last opisthokont common ancestor had a complex toolkit of chitin synthases that was differentially retained in extant lineages. Thus, our data provide evidence for convergent evolution of specialized lifestyles in close relatives of animals and fungi from a generalist ancestor.

PubMed | Institute Ciencias Marinas Of Andalucia, University of Cádiz and Institute Of Aquaculture Torre Of La Sal
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

A custom microarray was used for the transcriptomic profiling of liver, gills and hypothalamus in response to hypo- (38 5) or hyper- (38 55) osmotic challenges (7 days after salinity transfer) in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles. The total number of differentially expressed genes was 777. Among them, 341 and 310 were differentially expressed in liver after hypo- and hyper-osmotic challenges, respectively. The magnitude of changes was lower in gills and hypothalamus with around 131 and 160 responsive genes in at least one osmotic stress condition, respectively. Regardless of tissue, a number of genes were equally regulated in either hypo- and hyper-osmotic challenges: 127 out of 524 in liver, 11 out of 131 in gills and 19 out of 160 in hypothalamus. In liver and gills, functional analysis of differentially expressed genes recognized two major clusters of overlapping canonical pathways that were mostly related to Energy Metabolism and Oxidative Stress. The later cluster was represented in all the analyzed tissues, including the hypothalamus, where differentially expressed genes related to Cell and tissue architecture were also over-represented. Overall the response for Energy Metabolism was the up-regulation, whereas for oxidative stress-related genes the type of response was highly dependent of tissue. These results support common and different osmoregulatory responses in the three analyzed tissues, helping to load new allostatic conditions or even to return to basal levels after hypo- or hyper-osmotic challenges according to the different physiological role of each tissue.

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