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Petelczyc K.,Warsaw University of Technology | Garcia J.A.,University of Zaragoza | Bara S.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Jaroszewicz Z.,Institute of Applied Optics | And 4 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2011

We present results of numerical analysis of the Strehl ratio characteristics for the light sword optical element (LSOE). For comparison there were analyzed other optical imaging elements proposed for compensation of presbyopia such as the bifocal lens, the trifocal lens, the stenopeic contact lens, and elements with extended depth of focus (EDOF), such as the logarithmic and quartic axicons. The simulations were based on a human eye's model being a simplified version of the Gullstrand model. The results obtained allow to state that the LSOE exhibits much more uniform characteristics of the Strehl ratio comparing with other known hitherto elements and therefore it could be a promising aid to compensate for the insufficient accommodation range of the human eye. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Kryszczynski T.,Institute of Applied Optics | Lesniewski M.,Institute of Micromechanics and Photonics | Mikucki J.,Institute of Applied Optics
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

Original matrix formulas obtained by differentiation of the system matrix in respect to movements of components are derived. Components kinematics for the three zoom systems realized by means of interactive graphical software is presented. An optical system may be structurally designed by successive steps and its parameters determined to fulfil requirements, such as optical conjugation, focal lengths or magnifications. Improved software developed in this work serves both determination of optical powers and separations and movements of components. Developed methodology covers different types of fixed and zoom systems, the latter type with electronic or optical compensation. One may consider any optical system, such as the reproduction lens, objective lens or telescope system, because matrix optics distinguishes them remarkably easy. Kinematics pertaining to a full tract of the zoom system is determined at a discrete number of positions. Movements of so-called basic variable components are determined in a full cycle of work by means of iterative methods while movements of supplementary components may be inserted by means of exponential-parabolic functions also including their linear form. Any component of the zoom system may act as a variable, supplementary or fixed component, but it is mainly dependent on the structural design. Parameters of characteristics are computed as elements of a certain matrix. Designing is that to set these elements on required values by means of system parameters or movements of components. In this way, one may create complex multi-group systems with characteristics and movements which we accept. Properties of these systems are presented by numerical and graphical forms. Advantages of these systems are their more compact construction, more smooth kinematics, and better possibilities of optimization, what is particularly valuable for zoom systems with a high zooming ratio. Copyright © 2012 SPIE.

Osuch T.,National Institute of Telecommunications | Jaroszewicz Z.,National Institute of Telecommunications | Jaroszewicz Z.,Institute of Applied Optics
Optics Communications | Year: 2011

Scalar diffraction theory is applied to analyze the intensity distribution in the fiber core during fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fabrication using an apodized phase mask. The averaged diffraction field distribution in fiber core was calculated as a function of optical fiber position. The results show that in a case of apodized FBGs fabrication, averaged field intensity profile, and thus refractive index changes in fiber core have complex form. Moreover, it was shown that the influence of optical fiber position behind the phase mask on average intensity distribution in fiber core decreases with increasing of its diameter. Copyright © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Osuch T.,National Institute of Telecommunications | Kowalik A.,Institute Of Electronic Materials Technology of Poland | Jaroszewicz Z.,National Institute of Telecommunications | Jaroszewicz Z.,Institute of Applied Optics | Sarzynski M.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Applied Optics | Year: 2011

A new fabrication method of apodized diffractive optical elements is proposed. It relies on using high energy beam sensitive glass as a halftone mask for variable diffraction efficiency phase masks generation in a resist layer. The presented technology is especially effective in mass production. Although fabrication of an amplitude mask is required, it is then repeatedly used in a single shot projection photolithography, which is much simpler and less laborious than the direct variable-dose pattern writing. Three prototypes of apodized phase masks were manufactured and characterized. The main advantages as well as limitations of the proposed technology are discussed. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Rajesh K.B.,Anna University | Jaroszewicz Z.,Institute of Applied Optics | Anbarasan P.M.,Periyar University
Optics Express | Year: 2010

The focal field of high NA lens axicon with a binary-phase optical component is calculated by using vector diffraction theory. Numerical results show that for a radially polarized Bessel Gaussian input field, the proposed system generates a subwavelength (0.395λ) longitudinally polarized beam with large uniform depth of focus (approximately 6 λ). © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Tyburska A.,Warsaw University of Technology | Jankowski K.,Warsaw University of Technology | Ramsza A.,Institute of Applied Optics | Reszke E.,Ertec Poland | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2010

The feasibility of the use of the NOVA-2 dual-flow ultrasonic nebulizer for the determination of selenium, antimony and arsenic in drinking and mineral waters by direct hydride generation inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (HG-ICP-OES) has been investigated. The acidic sample and the borohydride solution are mixed directly on the surface of a quartz oscillating plate converting liquids into aerosol at the entrance of the spray chamber. The analytical figures of merit for the multielement determination of selenium, antimony and arsenic were evaluated. Results showed that the analytical performance of the new system was superior to that of conventional nebulization systems as well as conventional continuous HG with gas-liquid separation, regarding the susceptibility to non-spectroscopic interferences produced by transition metals. Detection limits between 0.7 and 2.1 ng mL-1 were achieved with ICP-OES detection. The precision of 10 replicate measurements at the 0.25 mg L-1 level was between 1.0 to 1.5% relative standard deviation. The utility of the system was demonstrated in the determination of selenium, antimony and arsenic in hard drinking water ERM-CA011a as well as selenium in mineral water samples. The advantages and limitations of this system, compared with existing techniques, are discussed. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Jankowski K.,Warsaw University of Technology | Ramsza A.P.,Institute of Applied Optics | Reszke E.,Ertec Poland | Strzelec M.,Warsaw University of Technology
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2010

A new 2.45 GHz frequency powered helium plasma source with rotating microwave field generated within the three electrodes has been developed. A stable symmetrical low-flow helium discharge is formed at atmospheric pressure with a minimum field strength at the axis. Thus, a triangle shaped ring plasma is obtained with a channel at the center through which the sample is introduced using a laminar dual-flow injector. The helium plasma operates at a microwave input power of 30-150 W and total gas flow of 200-1500 ml min-1 and it is self-igniting. The preliminary investigation of the plasma fundamental parameters provides a He excitation temperature up to 4000 K, rotational temperature (OH) up to 3100 K and electron number density up to 7.5 × 1014 cm-3. To demonstrate the plasma robustness, both the tolerance for water loading and the excitation and ionisation capability for hydride-forming elements as well as for ionic chlorine are presented. The detection limits for As, Sb and Hg obtained by continuous hydride generation without hydrogen separation were 12, 10 and 9 ng ml-1, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

Jankowski K.,Warsaw University of Technology | Ramsza A.P.,Institute of Applied Optics | Reszke E.,Ertec Poland
Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy | Year: 2011

Four helium plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure have been developed for analytical emission spectrometry by applying a synchronically rotating field with three or more phases operating at 1 kHz, 27 MHz or 2.45 GHz. The plasma takes the form of a disk and has minimum field strength at the axis. Thus, a channel is formed at the center through which the sample in the form of wet aerosol or a chemically generated vapor of halogen may be introduced. A dual-flow concentric ceramic injector was used to supply helium plasma gas and the sample to the plasma. The helium plasma operated at low power levels (40-300 W) and low gas flow rates of below 3 L min- 1 and was self-igniting. The acoustic, radio-frequency (rf) and microwave-driven plasmas can withstand wet aerosol loadings of 5, 30 and 100 mg min- 1, respectively, generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer without a desolvation unit. The plasma physical characteristics were compared at these three frequencies under otherwise similar operating conditions. The helium excitation temperature, OH rotational temperature and electron number density increased with increasing frequency in ranges of 2800-4000 K, 1100-3200 K and 0.1-7 × 10 14 cm- 3, respectively. To demonstrate the effect of frequency on the plasma excitation efficiency the emission intensity from halogen ions was evaluated using chemical vapor generation with continuous sampling without desiccation. Using 3-phase microwave, 6-phase microwave, 4-phase rf and 1 kHz helium plasma sources the detection limits (3σ) for chlorine at 479.40 nm were 26, 60, 230 and 1200 ng mL- 1, respectively. The microwave-driven plasma was the densest and had the highest excitation potential toward chlorine and bromine ions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Siemion A.,Warsaw University of Technology | Sypek M.,Warsaw University of Technology | Suszek J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Makowski M.,Warsaw University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

An improved efficient projection of holographic images is presented. It uses two phase spatial light modulators (SLMs) with two iteratively optimized Fresnel holograms displayed simultaneously-each for one modulator. The phase distribution on the second modulator is taking into account the light distribution coming from the first one. A pixelated structure of the modulator and fluctuations of liquid-crystal molecules cause a zero-order peak that was separated in experiment. Use of two SLMs gives clear and containing almost no speckles images. Thanks to the compensation of phase distribution from the first modulator, we can abandon diffusers in the iterative process and that is why we can control both amplitude and phase distribution in the image plane independently. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Kryszczynski T.,Institute of Applied Optics | Mikucki J.,Institute of Applied Optics
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

At present optics matrix is poorly suited to solve difficult problems of geometrical optics. The essence of the work is the use of matrix optics for analysis and construction of optical systems in the form of original matrix equations linking design features with working conditions of the optical system. Matrix equations are subjected to differentiation with respect to construction parameters. Matrix analytic functions are developed further in a finite series, because of vanishing derivatives of higher orders. In this way we obtain a methodology that is intended for analysis and construction of elaborated optical systems. Design methodology described in this work relies on carrying out certain operations to change the construction parameters starting with given roughly the optical system. These operations can be carried out in the entire optical system and its parts. The program enables calculation all partial derivatives with respect of individual and mixed construction parameters giving information if using these parameters for the correction of requirements is possible. Tables and graphs are helpful to initial design process. © 2010 SPIE.

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