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Kang Y.,Northwest University, China | Luczaj L.,Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic science | Kang J.,Northwest University, China | Zhang S.,Northwest University, China
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2013

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in two mountain valleys separated by Mount Taibai - the highest peak of northern China and one of its biodiversity hotspots, each adjacent to species-rich temperate forest vegetation.Methods: Seventy two free lists were collected among the inhabitants of two mountain valleys (36 in each). All the studied households are within walking distance of primary forest vegetation, however the valleys differed in access to urban centers: Houzhenzi is very isolated, and the Dali valley has easier access to the cities of central Shaanxi.Results: Altogether, 185 wild food plant species and 17 fungi folk taxa were mentioned. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high in Houzhenzi (mean 25) and slightly lower in Dali (mean 18). An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables, a few wild fruits and very few fungi. Age and male gender had a positive but very low effect on the number of taxa listed.Twelve taxa of wild vegetables (Allium spp., Amaranthus spp., Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Matteucia struthiopteris, Pteridium aquilinum, Toona sinensis, Cardamine macrophylla, Celastrus orbiculatus, Chenopodium album, Pimpinella sp., Staphylea bumalda & S. holocarpa), two species of edible fruits (Akebia trifoliata, Schisandra sphenanthera) and none of the mushrooms were freelisted by at least half of the respondents in one or two of the valleys.Conclusion: The high number of wild vegetables listed is due to the high cultural position of this type of food in China compared to other parts of the world, as well as the high biodiversity of the village surroundings. A very high proportion of woodland species (42%, double the number of the ruderal species used) among the listed taxa is contrary to the general stereotype that wild vegetables in Asia are mainly ruderal species.The very low interest in wild mushroom collecting is noteworthy and is difficult to explain. It may arise from the easy access to the cultivated Auricularia and Lentinula mushrooms and very steep terrain, making foraging for fungi difficult. © 2012 Kang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Bugno-Poniewierska M.,National Research Institute of Animal Production | Bugno-Poniewierska M.,Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic science | Solek P.,Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic science | Potocki L.,Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic science | And 4 more authors.
Folia Biologica (Poland) | Year: 2013

Analysis of the origin of domestic animals is of wide interest and has many practical applications in areas such as agriculture and evolutionary biology. Identification of an ancestor and comparison with the domesticated form allows for an analysis of genetic, physiological, morphological and behavioral effects of domestication. Because fox breeding has been an ongoing process for over a century, differences are expected between farm and wild populations at the chromosomal level. The aim of this work was to analyse polymorphisms at the chromosomal level in foxes raised on farms and those living in thewild. Blood samples and lung tissue served as the experimental material and were obtained after slaughter of 35 foxes, including 28 breeding animals and 7 wild animals. The classical cytogenetic method was used including AgNOR technique, as well as molecular methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and primed in situ labeling (PRINS). Analysis of the number of B chromosomes showed the presence of polymorphisms in foxes from both studied populations, but there was no correlation between the number of B chromosomes and the origin and gender of particular animals. An analysis of active nucleolar organizers showed the presence of a large number of polymorphisms and a tendency towards reduction of the number of NORs in the captive-raised population. © Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, PAS, Kraków, 2013. Source


Bugno-Poniewierska M.,National Research Institute of Animal Production | Bugno-Poniewierska M.,Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic science | Wronski M.,Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic science | Potocki L.,Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic science | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Animal Science | Year: 2013

The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a mammalian species that belongs to Canidae family, order Carnivora. This species represents both animals living in the wild and farm animals used in the fur industry. Raccoon dogs have the most 'primitive' karyotype among Canidae family. The Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides) is characterised by a variable number of chromosomes (2n = 54 + 0-4 B). B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes occurring in addition to the basic set of A chromosomes in the cells of many organisms. The function and origin of these additional chromosomes is not clear. The aim of this work was to determine possible karyotypic differences between wild-living and farm populations, using methods of classical and molecular cytogenetics. The most useful cytogenetic markers to analyse karyotype polymorphism of canine are the number of B chromosomes and nucleolar organizer regions. A variation was identified in the number of B chromosomes and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in cells between wild-living and breeding populations. Source


Bugno-Poniewierska M.,National Research Institute of Animal Production | Bugno-Poniewierska M.,Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic science | Slota B.,Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic science | Pawlina K.,National Research Institute of Animal Production | And 4 more authors.
Folia Biologica (Poland) | Year: 2014

The results obtained in the present study made it possible to place selected markers on the physical map of the arctic fox genome. With the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) the GHR (3q24) and Il10 (1q21.1-21.2) genes and the FH2537 (5q11.3)microsatellite were localized on arctic fox chromosomes. The results confirmed previously proposed homologies using the ZOO-FISH technique, except for the Il10 gene. This suggests that the gene underwent a rearrangement (an inversion) that changed its localization compared to the dog.© Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, PAS, Kraków, 2014. Source

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