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Canaza-Cayo A.W.,Austral University of Chile | Alomar D.,Institute of Animal Production | Quispe E.,National University of Huancavelica
Animal | Year: 2013

Rapid and efficient methods to evaluate variables associated with fibre quality are essential in animal breeding programs and fibre trade. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated to predict textile quality attributes of alpaca fibre. Raw samples of fibres taken from male and female Huacaya alpacas (n = 291) of different ages and colours were scanned and their visible-near-infrared (NIR; 400 to 2500 nm) reflectance spectra were collected and analysed. Reference analysis of the samples included mean fibre diameter (MFD), standard deviation of fibre diameter (SDFD), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter (CVFD), mean fibre curvature (MFC), standard deviation of fibre curvature (SDFC), comfort factor (CF), spinning fineness (SF) and staple length (SL). Patterns of spectral variation (loadings) were explored by principal component analysis (PCA), where the first four PC's explained 99.97% and the first PC alone 95.58% of spectral variability. Calibration models were developed by modified partial least squares regression, testing different mathematical treatments (derivative order, subtraction gap, smoothing segment) of the spectra, with or without applying spectral correction algorithms (standard normal variate and detrend). Equations were selected through one-out cross-validation according to the proportion of explained variance (R 2CV), root mean square error in cross-validation (RMSECV) and the residual predictive deviation (RPD), which relates the standard deviation of the reference data to RMSECV. The best calibration models were accomplished when using the NIR region (1100 to 2500 nm) for the prediction of MFD and SF, with R 2CV = 0.90 and 0.87; RMSECV = 1.01 and 1.08 μm and RPD = 3.13 and 2.73, respectively. Models for SDFD, CVFD, MFC, SDFC, CF and SL had lower predictive quality with R 2CV < 0.65 and RPD < 1.5. External validation performed for MFD and SF on 91 samples was slightly poorer than cross-validation, with R 2 of 0.86 and 0.82, and standard error of prediction of 1.21 and 1.33 μm, for MFD and SF, respectively. It is concluded that NIRS can be used as an effective technique to select alpacas according to some important textile quality traits such as MFD and SF. © 2013 The Animal Consortium.

Rivero M.J.,Institute of Animal Production | Lopez I.F.,Institute of Animal Production | Hodgkinson S.M.,Austral University of Chile
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance on pasture DM consumption by growing European wild boar. An additional objective was to evaluate the influence of pasture consumption on supplemental diet intake and BW gain. A previously sown grass-clover pasture was managed by cutting to obtain an herbage mass equivalent to 1,500 kg/ha DM. Areas of pasture were limited by fencing to obtain 3 different herbage allowances whereas the pasture was removed in other areas. Forty-eight purebred European wild boars (initial age of 120 d and initial BW of 14.4 kg) were grouped in pairs and each pair was randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments (6 pairs per treatment): no pasture (4 m2; pasture removed), low (5.33 m2; 400 g/d pasture DM available/wild boar), medium (8 m2; 600 g/d pasture DM available/ wild boar), and high (16 m2; 1,200 g/d pasture DM available/wild boar). The treatment areas were moved daily with a 7-d rotation. For a 28-d period, wild boars entered their treatment areas from 0830 to 1630 h, after which they had free access to a supplemental diet for 1 h. Pasture consumption was estimated daily by cutting pasture samples pre- and postgrazing. Supplemental diet consumption was determined daily (feed offered minus remaining feed). Animals were weighed weekly. Pasture consumption differed (P < 0.001) among wild boars receiving different treatments, with cumulative consumptions of 3.0 and 3.9 kg DM/wild boar over 28 d for low and medium herbage allowances, respectively (P <0.09), and 6.4 kg DM/wild boar over 28 d for high herbage allowance, with the latter consumption being greater (P < 0.001) than the consumption recorded with the decreased herbage allowance treatments. The supplemental diet consumption tended (P = 0.16) to be less in wild boars with greater herbage allowance. European wild boars with access to pasture had greater (8.48 vs. 6.27 kg; P = 0.002) BW gain than those without access to pasture. In conclusion, pasture consumption by European wild boars can be enhanced by increasing herbage allowance and greater BW gains can be achieved in wild boars with access to pasture compared with those with no pasture access copyright © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Institute of Animal Production, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna and Debrecen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycotoxin research | Year: 2016

Four diets contaminated with 1.1 to 5.0 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.4 to 2.4 mg/kg zearalenone (ZEA) were fed to four groups of six growing Large White pigs. Urine samples were collected after 3 to 4 days and again after 6 to 7 days on the diets. On each sampling day, half of the animals were sampled in the morning, after an 8-h fast, and the other half were sampled in the afternoon, after 7 h of ad libitum access to feed. The urinary concentrations of DON, DON-glucuronide, DON-3-sulphate, de-epoxy-DON, as well as of ZEA, ZEA-14-glucuronide, -zearalenol and -zearalenol-14-glucuronide, analysed using LC-MS/MS, were used to calculate urinary DON and ZEA equivalent concentrations (DONe and ZEAe). The urinary concentration of DONe (P<0.001), but not of ZEAe (P=0.31), was lower in the fasted than that in the fed animals. The urinary DONe/creatinine and ZEAe/creatinine ratios were highly correlated with DON and ZEA intake per kg body weight the day preceding sampling (r=0.76 and 0.77; P<0.001). The correlations between DON intake during the 7 h preceding urine sampling in the afternoon and urinary DONe/creatinine ratio (r=0.88) as well as between mean ZEA intake during 3 days preceding urine sampling and urinary ZEAe/creatinine ratio (r=0.84) were even higher, reflecting the plasma elimination half-time of several hours for DON and of more than 3 days for ZEA. ZEAe analysed in enzymatically hydrolysed urine using an ELISA kit was highly correlated with the LC-MS/MS data (r=0.94). The urinary DONe and ZEAe to creatinine ratios, analysed in pooled urine samples of several pigs fed the same diet, can be used to estimate their exposure to DON and ZEA.

Dannenberger D.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Nuernberg K.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Nuernberg G.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Priepke A.,Institute of Animal Production
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The study assessed the effects of reduced protein (RPD) vs high protein diet (HPD) in combination with n-3/n-6 PUFA-containing plant oils [linseed oil (LO)/sunflower seed oil (SO)] supplementation on lipid metabolism-related protein expression and fatty acid concentrations in porcine tissues. Forty male Landrace pigs (castrates) were allocated into four groups fed diets different in dietary protein and PUFA level and one control group. SCD-1 protein expression in pig muscle, back fat, and liver was not aff ected by diet. The protein expression of precursor (pSREBP-1c) and active nuclear form of SREBP-1c (mSREBP-1c) in muscle and back fat was affected by diet, however not in liver of pigs. In contrast, the expression of ACC and FAS expression was significantly affected by diet only in the liver. The fatty acid concentrations in muscle, liver, and back fat resulted in higher n-3 PUFA concentrations of LO groups compared to the SO groups. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Mahecha L.,University of Antioquia | Dannenberger D.,Research Unit of Muscle Biology and Growth | Nuernberg K.,Research Unit of Muscle Biology and Growth | Nuernberg G.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

This study evaluated the influence of different n-3 and n-6 PUFA-enriched diets on the relationship between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status by analyzing fatty acids (FA), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity (AOC), antioxidant enzymes, trace elements, and fat-soluble vitamins in the longissimus muscle. Diet caused significant changes in muscle FA composition, leading to accumulation of beneficial n-3 FA. β-Carotene and catalase activity were significantly elevated in muscle of the n-3 PUFA-enriched diet group compared to the n-6 PUFA-enriched diet group. Lipid peroxidation was higher in muscle of the n-3 PUFA-enriched diet group after 15 min of reaction time. There was no significant effect of diet on AOC, but it increased with reaction time. The present results suggest that the antioxidant defense in muscle of the n-3 PUFA-enriched diet group could balance reactive substances under low oxidative conditions. However, the antioxidant capacity was not sufficient under abundant accumulation of reactive substances. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Dannenberger D.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Nuernberg K.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Nuernberg G.,Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology | Priepke A.,Institute of Animal Production
Nutrients | Year: 2012

The present study investigated the effect of a reduced protein diet in combination with different vegetable oils (sunflower seed oil or linseed oil) on carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid profile in porcine muscle. Forty male Landrace pigs were allocated into four experimental groups (each n = 8) and one control group (n = 8) at a live weight of approximately 60 kg. The pigs were fed ad libitum from 60 kg to 100 kg live weight and restricted to 2.8 kg/day until they reached 120 kg. In contrast to other studies, the intramuscular fat content (IMF) did not increase in animals of groups fed a reduced protein diet and vegetable oils. The IMF ranged between 1.2% and 1.4%. The growth performance and meat quality of the longissimus muscle was not affected by the diet, but the average daily gain (ADG) and drip loss were affected. The muscle fatty acid concentrations were significantly affected by the diet, resulting in higher n-3 FA concentrations up to 113 mg/100 g muscle and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio for pigs fed linseed oil-containing high-and reduced protein diets, compared to sunflower seed oil-containing diets. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Vostry L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Vostry L.,Institute of Animal Production | Vesela Z.,Institute of Animal Production | Pribyl J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Pribyl J.,Institute of Animal Production
Archiv fur Tierzucht | Year: 2012

The average daily gains of young bulls on test stations (ADGT) were analysed for the most frequent breeds of beef cattle in the Czech Republic using a multiple-trait animal model. Body weights at birth (W0), at 120 days of age (W120) and at weaning at 210 days (WW) were considered in this model as pre-weaning growth. The tested models comprised some of the random effects: direct genetic effect, maternal genetic effect, permanent animal environment effect, permanent maternal environment effect, and some of the fixed effects: dam's age, sex, herd-year-season, linear and quadratic regression on age at the beginning of the test. For optimization of the models Akaike information criterion (AIC), residual variance and likelihood ratio test were used. Coefficients of direct and maternal heritability across breeds of about 0.25 for W0, about 0.17 for W120, about 0.17 for WW and about 0.29 for ADGT were estimated by all models. All criteria selected models including the permanent animal environment effect, which was the most important effect in the model. © Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology.

Vostry L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Vostry L.,Institute of Animal Production | Mach K.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Pribyl J.,Institute of Animal Production
Archiv fur Tierzucht | Year: 2012

The objective of this paper was to select a suitable data subset and statistical model for the estimation of genetic parameters for 36 traits of the linear type in 977 Old Kladruber horses. Two subsets were tested to identify a suitable subset for analysis. One subset included repeated evaluation of certain individuals, whereas the other did not. The most suitable subset included repeated evaluation (n=1 390). The selection of a suitable model was made from 4 candidate models. These models comprised a number of random effects (direct individual effect and animal permanent environmental effect of the animal) and a number of fixed effects (colour variant, stud, colour variant × stud interaction, sex, age at description, year of birth, year of description). The model was selected based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC, Akaike 1974), residual variance and heritability coefficient. The model that included colour variant, stud, colour variant × stud interaction, sex, age at description, and year of description as fixed effects and direct individual and animal permanent environment as random effects was the most suitable model for the estimation of genetic parameters and for the subsequent estimation of breeding values. © Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Dummerstorf, Germany.

Vostry L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Vostry L.,Institute of Animal Production | Capkova Z.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Pribyl J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Czech Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

Genetic parameters, breeding values and inbreeding depression for 22 linear type description of conformation and type characters and 4 body measurements were evaluated in a group of 1744 horses of three original cold-blooded breeds in the Czech Republic in a long period of 18 years (1990-2007). Based on the values of Akaike's information criterion, residual variance and heritability coefficient, a model with fixed effects (sex, year of description, breed, and classifier) and with a random effect (animal) was selected. Heritability coefficients for the particular traits were in the range of 0.11 to 0.55 and genetic correlations ranged from -0.63 to 0.97. Inbreeding depression, expressed as coefficients of regression on one percent of inbreeding, was in the range of -0.0992 to 0.0242 points for the particular traits. The inclusion of inbreeding depression in the model resulted in a moderate change in h2 in one-third of the traits. In two-thirds of traits, the value of rG increased or decreased by 0.01. Standard deviations of the breeding values for linear type description of conformation and type characters were in the range of 0.30 to 0.72 and 0.62 to 6.18 for body measurement traits. Among breeding values estimated by a model without inbreeding depression and a model with inbreeding depression, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient values for the particular traits were 0.916-0.999 (sample of all horses), 0.710-0.992 (10% of the best horses) and 0.827-0.998 (10% of the worst horses). If the average value of the inbreeding coefficient is low (0.03), then it is not necessary to include the influence of inbreeding depression in the model for the genetic evaluation of individuals of original cold-blooded horses kept in the Czech Republic.

PubMed | Institute of Animal Production
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied genetics | Year: 2015

DNA methylation patterns and their relation with genetic polymorphisms were determined in the equine OAS1 locus. Genetic variants of OAS1 were previously found to be associated with susceptibility to West Nile virus infections in horses. The subject of the study were white blood cells of 13 juvenile and 13 old horses from AA and HC breed and a set of solid tissues from a single adult horse. The aim was to determine the degree of variation of CpG methylation profiles with concern for tissue type, horse breed and age. Results of direct BSPCR and cloned BSPCR sequencing revealed that all of determined CpG islands (CGIs) were hypermethylated in exception to CGI covering OAS1 promoter and exon 1. One of intragenic CGIs displayed variability of methylation patterns across eight tissue types. The variability of particular sub-types of white blood cells between AA and HC horses were considered as the possible cause of interbreed differences of methylation levels. Comparison of sequence variability between converted and unconverted DNAs of both horse breeds showed polymorphisms of CpG sites to be the source of monoallelic methylation in exception to the polymorphic CpGs located in the OAS1 promoter. Two of them are new polymorphic variants in the OAS1 promoter region. Application of methylation data in conjunction with genetic variation detected at the OAS1 locus might be useful to deepen the knowledge about mechanisms underlying immunity to viral infections in the horse.

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