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Cizkova J.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Cizkova J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Cervinkova M.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Cervinkova M.,Charles University
International Journal of Celiac Disease | Year: 2015

Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune - mediated inflammatory intestinal disorder with prevalence about 1% of the West European population. The emergence of the disease is dependent on presence of grain storage proteins from wheat, barley, and rye (collectively called gluten) and genetic predisposition. After diagnosis is immediately deployed lifelong gluten free diet (GFD) to promote villous healing. In the case of CD - like other autoimmune disease, additional complications are observed especially if dietary compliance is poor. The most serious complications are malignancies including predominantly various types of lymphomas. On the other hand recent studies indicate lower risk of colon cancer in contrast to cutaneous malignant melanoma where the results are contradictory. © Science and Education Publishing.


Bohlen J.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Slechtova V.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Tan H.H.,National University of Singapore | Britz R.,Natural History Museum in London
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

The genus Pangio is one of the most species-rich of the loach family Cobitidae and widespread across South and Southeast Asia. Its species diversity has never been studied under a clear phylogenetic approach, but four 'species-groups' were proposed according to the most obvious morphological characters. We present here phylogenetic analyses of the genus Pangio based on sequence data of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, the nuclear recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG 1) and a combined dataset of 109 specimens from 18 morphologically identified species across the whole distribution area of the genus. Our data reveal the existence of three major lineages within Pangio. Two of our major lineages were congruent with formerly proposed species-groups, the remaining two species-groups together formed the third major lineage; herein we refer to the lineages as to anguillaris-group, kuhlii-oblonga group and shelfordii-group. The application of a molecular clock dated the age of the three lineages to 33-29 million years. At the species level, our data suggest about 30 distinct lineages, indicating that there is a high number of undescribed species within Pangio. The use of Pangio to address biogeographic questions is demonstrated with the example of the shelfordii-group, which is distributed across Sundaland. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Rylkova K.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Kalous L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Bohlen J.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Lamatsch D.K.,University of Innsbruck | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius, widespread throughout Europe and Asia, are important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish. The high morphologic similarity between the species, however, has up to now prevented reliable conclusions on their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history. A phylogeny of the fish genus Carassius based on the cytochrome b sequence of 404 specimens collected from aquaculture and open water localities across Eurasia identifies most of the presently recognised species as monophyletic lineages, but also that at least one lineage exists that does not correspond to any described species. Within Europe, feral populations of Carassius auratus occur mainly in the Mediterranean area and Great Britain, while Carassius gibelio is found in most of non-Mediterranean Europe and some localities in Italy. Carassius langsdorfii has very scattered points of occurrence in at least six European countries. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe. The populations of C. gibelio in eastern Central Europe and parts of Eastern Europe are considered as resulting from a natural postglacial range expansion, while the rest of Europe was colonised due to anthropogenic impact. The presence of diploid (2n = 100) as well as triploid (3n = 150) specimens in the three most widespread species indicates that ploidy level is not a character to identify the species of Carassius. A remarkably low genetic divergence in C. gibelio can be the result of clone selection in the gynogenetic populations. In general, our data present the first comprehensive overview about the genus Carassius in Europe based on genetic data. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Sebestova J.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Sebestova J.,Veterinary Research Institute | Danylevska A.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Danylevska A.,Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2012

Chromosome segregation errors are highly frequent in mammalian female meiosis, and their incidence gradually increases with maternal age. The fate of aneuploid eggs is obviously dependent on the stringency of mechanisms for detecting unattached or repairing incorrectly attached kinetochores. In case of their failure, the newly formed embryo will inherit the impaired set of chromosomes, which will have severe consequences for its further development. Whether spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in oocytes is capable of arresting cell cycle progression in response to unaligned kinetochores was discussed for a long time. It is known that abolishing SAC increases frequency of chromosome segregation errors and causes precocious entry into anaphase; SAC, therefore, seems to be essential for normal chromosome segregation in meiosis I. However, it was also reported that for anaphase-promoting complex (APC) activation, which is a prerequisite for entering anaphase; alignment of only a critical mass of kinetochores on equatorial plane is sufficient. This indicates that the function of SAC and of cooperating chromosome attachment correction mechanisms in oocytes is different from somatic cells. To analyze this phenomenon, we used live cell confocal microscopy to monitor chromosome movements, spindle formation, APC activation and polar body extrusion (PBE) simultaneously in individual oocytes at various time points during first meiotic division. Our results, using oocytes from aged animals and interspecific crosses, demonstrate that multiple unaligned kinetochores and severe congression defects are tolerated at the metaphase to anaphase transition, although such cells retain sensitivity to nocodazole. This indicates that checkpoint mechanisms, operating in oocytes at this point, are essential for accurate timing of APC activation in meiosis I, but they are insufficient in detection or correction of unaligned chromosomes, preparing thus conditions for propagation of the aneuploidy to the embryo. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.


Hornak M.,Veterinary Research Institute | Jeseta M.,Veterinary Research Institute | Musilova P.,Veterinary Research Institute | Pavlok A.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

It is generally accepted that mammalian oocytes are frequently suffering from chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I, which have severe consequences, including pregnancy loss, developmental disorders and mental retardation. In a search for physiologically more relevant model than rodent oocytes to study this phenomenon, we have employed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), combined with whole genome amplification (WGA), to study the frequency of aneuploidy in porcine oocytes, including rare cells obtained from aged animals. Using this method, we were able to analyze segregation pattern of each individual chromosome during meiosis I. In contrast to the previous reports where conventional methods, such as chromosome spreads or FISH, were used to estimate frequency of aneuploidy, our results presented here show, that the frequency of this phenomenon was overestimated in porcine oocytes. Surprisingly, despite the results from human and mouse showing an increase in the frequency of aneuploidy with advanced maternal age, our results obtained by the most accurate method currently available for scoring the aneuploidy in oocytes indicated no increase in the frequency of aneuploidy even in oocytes from animals, whose age was close to the life expectancy of the breed. © 2011 Hornak et al.


Rylkova K.,Food Republic | Kalous L.,Food Republic | Slechtova V.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Bohlen J.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

Goldfish is one of the most important pet and laboratory fishes of the world that is nowadays pan-globally distributed and well known to everybody. Despite the wide phenotypic variability of the ornamental forms, all goldfish are traditionally considered to be Carassius auratus, a species that developed via domestication from the Silver Prussian carp, C. gibelio. However, the postulated monophyly of goldfish has never been proven, and multiple domestication events may have occurred. Here we present the results of a reconstructed genealogy of 49 individuals of the genus Carassius based on unique sequences of mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. The samples originated from different parts of Eurasia and include different varieties of domesticated goldfish as well as feral populations and specimens of other representatives of the genus Carassius. The results indicate that goldfish indeed forms a monophyletic lineage and point on a single domestication event as source of all goldfish varieties. However, the monophyletic goldfish lineage was not nested within the samples of C. gibelio, but formed a sister lineage. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Pruvost N.B.M.,University of Zürich | Mikulicek P.,Comenius University | Choleva L.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Choleva L.,Charles University | Reyer H.-U.,University of Zürich
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2015

The scarcity of parthenogenetic vertebrates is often attributed to their 'inferior' mode of clonal reproduction, which restricts them to self-reproduce their own genotype lineage and leaves little evolutionary potential with regard to speciation and evolution of sexual reproduction. Here, we show that for some taxa, such uniformity does not hold. Using hybridogenetic water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) as a model system, we demonstrate that triploid hybrid males from two geographic regions exhibit very different reproductive modes. With an integrative data set combining field studies, crossing experiments, flow cytometry and microsatellite analyses, we found that triploid hybrids from Central Europe are rare, occur in male sex only and form diploid gametes of a single clonal lineage. In contrast, triploid hybrids from north-western Europe are widespread, occur in both sexes and produce recombined haploid gametes. These differences translate into contrasting reproductive roles between regions. In Central Europe, triploid hybrid males sexually parasitize diploid hybrids and just perpetuate their own genotype - which is the usual pattern in parthenogens. In north-western Europe, on the other hand, the triploid males are gamete donors for diploid hybrids, thereby stabilizing the mixed 2n-3n hybrid populations. By demonstrating these contrasting roles in male reproduction, we draw attention to a new significant evolutionary potential for animals with nonsexual reproduction, namely reproductive plasticity. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.


Markova S.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Sanda R.,National Museum | Crivelli A.,Station biologique de la Tour du Valat | Shumka S.,University of Tirana | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

Freshwater fauna of ancient lakes frequently contain endemic taxa thought to have originated during the long existence of these lakes, yet uncertainties remain as to whether they represent distinct genetic lineages with respect to more widespread relatives and to the relative roles of isolation and dispersal in their evolution. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at nuclear and mitochondrial genes were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish genus Barbus in two European ancient lake systems on the Balkan Peninsula. The nuclear and mitochondrial data yielded concordant phylogeographic patterns though incomplete sorting of nuclear haplotypes between some mitochondrial clades was detected. The distributions of two currently recognized species investigated here do not match the distributions of evolutionary lineages revealed by phylogenetic analyses. The Prespa barbel, Barbus prespensis, is not endemic to the lakes Prespa as previously thought but is instead found to be widespread in the south-eastern Adriatic Sea basin, with a distribution largely corresponding to the basin of the now extinct Lake Maliq historically connected with Lake Prespa. On the other hand, a cryptic phylogenetic subdivision in a widespread species, B. rebeli, was discovered to be more distant from B. rebeli than from other Barbus species and to be endemic to the system of connected lakes Ohrid and Shkodra. The division coincides with the hydrogeographical boundary delimiting distributions of other freshwater fishes, and we suggest that this newly discovered evolutionary lineage represents a distinct species. These findings support the emerging pattern that endemic taxa have evolved not through isolation of individual lakes, but in systems of currently and historically interconnected lakes and their wider basins. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Kalous L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Rylkova K.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Bohlen J.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Sanda R.,National Museum | Petrtyl M.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2013

In this study, records on the occurrence of the Japanese ginbuna Carassius langsdorfii from northern Germany, north-western Italy and southern Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented. The new findings, in addition to former studies reported in the Czech Republic and Greece, show that C. langsdorfii is much more widespread in Europe than was previously believed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.


Vannucci L.,Institute of Microbiology | Vannucci L.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics
Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar | Year: 2011

The recurrence of a cancer - local or distant (metastasis) - is manifested by the persistence of cancer cells in the organism after the ablation of the primary lesion, an ineffective anticancer immune response, and by the activity of biological/immunological factors that can stimulate and sustain its development. This review focuses on colorectal carcinoma and discusses some aspects of cancer immunology regarding cancer development and its recurrence. It is addressed also to the clinician to provide new insights helpful for designing better therapeutic strategies and patient's follow up. Therapeutic approaches used during and after surgical treatments, found capable of modulating immunity (differently affecting disease outcome), will also be described.

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