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Vannucci L.,Institute of Microbiology | Vannucci L.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics
Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar | Year: 2011

The recurrence of a cancer - local or distant (metastasis) - is manifested by the persistence of cancer cells in the organism after the ablation of the primary lesion, an ineffective anticancer immune response, and by the activity of biological/immunological factors that can stimulate and sustain its development. This review focuses on colorectal carcinoma and discusses some aspects of cancer immunology regarding cancer development and its recurrence. It is addressed also to the clinician to provide new insights helpful for designing better therapeutic strategies and patient's follow up. Therapeutic approaches used during and after surgical treatments, found capable of modulating immunity (differently affecting disease outcome), will also be described. Source


Pruvost N.B.M.,University of Zurich | Mikulicek P.,Comenius University | Choleva L.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Choleva L.,Charles University | Reyer H.-U.,University of Zurich
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2015

The scarcity of parthenogenetic vertebrates is often attributed to their 'inferior' mode of clonal reproduction, which restricts them to self-reproduce their own genotype lineage and leaves little evolutionary potential with regard to speciation and evolution of sexual reproduction. Here, we show that for some taxa, such uniformity does not hold. Using hybridogenetic water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) as a model system, we demonstrate that triploid hybrid males from two geographic regions exhibit very different reproductive modes. With an integrative data set combining field studies, crossing experiments, flow cytometry and microsatellite analyses, we found that triploid hybrids from Central Europe are rare, occur in male sex only and form diploid gametes of a single clonal lineage. In contrast, triploid hybrids from north-western Europe are widespread, occur in both sexes and produce recombined haploid gametes. These differences translate into contrasting reproductive roles between regions. In Central Europe, triploid hybrid males sexually parasitize diploid hybrids and just perpetuate their own genotype - which is the usual pattern in parthenogens. In north-western Europe, on the other hand, the triploid males are gamete donors for diploid hybrids, thereby stabilizing the mixed 2n-3n hybrid populations. By demonstrating these contrasting roles in male reproduction, we draw attention to a new significant evolutionary potential for animals with nonsexual reproduction, namely reproductive plasticity. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Source


Kalous L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Rylkova K.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Bohlen J.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Sanda R.,National Museum | Petrtyl M.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2013

In this study, records on the occurrence of the Japanese ginbuna Carassius langsdorfii from northern Germany, north-western Italy and southern Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented. The new findings, in addition to former studies reported in the Czech Republic and Greece, show that C. langsdorfii is much more widespread in Europe than was previously believed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Source


Rylkova K.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Kalous L.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Bohlen J.,Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics | Lamatsch D.K.,University of Innsbruck | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius, widespread throughout Europe and Asia, are important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish. The high morphologic similarity between the species, however, has up to now prevented reliable conclusions on their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history. A phylogeny of the fish genus Carassius based on the cytochrome b sequence of 404 specimens collected from aquaculture and open water localities across Eurasia identifies most of the presently recognised species as monophyletic lineages, but also that at least one lineage exists that does not correspond to any described species. Within Europe, feral populations of Carassius auratus occur mainly in the Mediterranean area and Great Britain, while Carassius gibelio is found in most of non-Mediterranean Europe and some localities in Italy. Carassius langsdorfii has very scattered points of occurrence in at least six European countries. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe. The populations of C. gibelio in eastern Central Europe and parts of Eastern Europe are considered as resulting from a natural postglacial range expansion, while the rest of Europe was colonised due to anthropogenic impact. The presence of diploid (2n = 100) as well as triploid (3n = 150) specimens in the three most widespread species indicates that ploidy level is not a character to identify the species of Carassius. A remarkably low genetic divergence in C. gibelio can be the result of clone selection in the gynogenetic populations. In general, our data present the first comprehensive overview about the genus Carassius in Europe based on genetic data. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Devine M.J.,University of Edinburgh | Devine M.J.,University College London | Ryten M.,University College London | Vodicka P.,Roslin Institute | And 14 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2011

A major barrier to research on Parkinson's disease is inaccessibility of diseased tissue for study. One solution is to derive induced pluripotent stem cells from patients and differentiate them into neurons affected by disease. Triplication of SNCA, encoding α-synuclein, causes a fully penetrant, aggressive form of Parkinson's disease with dementia. α-Synuclein dysfunction is the critical pathogenic event in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. Here we produce multiple induced pluripotent stem cell lines from an SNCA triplication patient and an unaffected first-degree relative. When these cells are differentiated into midbrain dopaminergic neurons, those from the patient produce double the amount of α-synuclein protein as neurons from the unaffected relative, precisely recapitulating the cause of Parkinson's disease in these individuals. This model represents a new experimental system to identify compounds that reduce levels of α-synuclein, and to investigate the mechanistic basis of neurodegeneration caused by α-synuclein dysfunction. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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