Institute of Animal Pathology

Bern, Switzerland

Institute of Animal Pathology

Bern, Switzerland

Time filter

Source Type

Goldmann T.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Goldmann T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Overlack N.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Moller F.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | And 6 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Translational read-through-inducing drugs (TRIDs) promote read-through of nonsense mutations, placing them in the spotlight of current gene-based therapeutic research. Here, we compare for the first time the relative efficacies of new-generation aminoglycosides NB30, NB54 and the chemical compound PTC124 on retinal toxicity and read-through efficacy of a nonsense mutation in the USH1C gene, which encodes the scaffold protein harmonin. This mutation causes the human Usher syndrome, the most common form of inherited deaf-blindness. We quantify read-through efficacy of the TRIDs in cell culture and show the restoration of harmonin function. We do not observe significant differences in the read-through efficacy of the TRIDs in retinal cultures; however, we show an excellent biocompatibility in retinal cultures with read-through versus toxicity evidently superior for NB54 and PTC124. In addition, in vivo administration of NB54 and PTC124 induced recovery of the full-length harmonin a1 with the same efficacy. The high biocompatibilities combined with the sustained read-through efficacies of these drugs emphasize the potential of NB54 and PTC124 in treating nonsense mutation-based retinal disorders. © 2012 The Authors.


Di Zenzo G.,Instituto Dermopatico Dellimmacolata | Amber K.T.,University of California at Irvine | Sayar B.S.,Institute of Animal Pathology | Sayar B.S.,University of Bern | And 4 more authors.
Seminars in Immunopathology | Year: 2016

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are two severe autoimmune bullous diseases of the mucosae and/or skin associated with autoantibodies directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and/or Dsg1. These two desmosomal cadherins, typifying stratified epithelia, are components of cell adhesion complexes called desmosomes and represent extra-desmosomal adhesion receptors. We herein review the advances in our understanding of the immune response underlying pemphigus, including human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II-associated genetic susceptibility, characteristics of pathogenic anti-Dsg antibodies, antigenic mapping studies as well as findings about Dsg-specific B and T cells. The pathogenicity of anti-Dsg autoantibodies has been convincingly demonstrated. Disease activity and clinical phenotype correlate with anti-Dsg antibody titers and profile while passive transfer of anti-Dsg IgG from pemphigus patients’ results in pemphigus-like lesions in neonatal and adult mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from Dsg3-knockout mice immunized with murine Dsg3 into immunodeficient mice phenotypically recapitulates PV. Although the exact pathogenic mechanisms leading to blister formation have not been fully elucidated, intracellular signaling following antibody binding has been found to be necessary for inducing cell-cell dissociation, at least for PV. These new insights not only highlight the key role of Dsgs in maintenance of tissue homeostasis but are expected to progressively change pemphigus management, paving the way for novel targeted immunologic and pharmacologic therapies. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | University of California at Irvine, Institute of Animal Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty and Instituto Dermopatico dellImmacolata
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Seminars in immunopathology | Year: 2016

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are two severe autoimmune bullous diseases of the mucosae and/or skin associated with autoantibodies directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and/or Dsg1. These two desmosomal cadherins, typifying stratified epithelia, are components of cell adhesion complexes called desmosomes and represent extra-desmosomal adhesion receptors. We herein review the advances in our understanding of the immune response underlying pemphigus, including human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II-associated genetic susceptibility, characteristics of pathogenic anti-Dsg antibodies, antigenic mapping studies as well as findings about Dsg-specific B and T cells. The pathogenicity of anti-Dsg autoantibodies has been convincingly demonstrated. Disease activity and clinical phenotype correlate with anti-Dsg antibody titers and profile while passive transfer of anti-Dsg IgG from pemphigus patients results in pemphigus-like lesions in neonatal and adult mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from Dsg3-knockout mice immunized with murine Dsg3 into immunodeficient mice phenotypically recapitulates PV. Although the exact pathogenic mechanisms leading to blister formation have not been fully elucidated, intracellular signaling following antibody binding has been found to be necessary for inducing cell-cell dissociation, at least for PV. These new insights not only highlight the key role of Dsgs in maintenance of tissue homeostasis but are expected to progressively change pemphigus management, paving the way for novel targeted immunologic and pharmacologic therapies.


Weissenbacher-Lang C.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Voglmayr T.,Traunkreis VetClinic | Waxenecker F.,Biomin GmbH | Hofstetter U.,Biomin GmbH | And 7 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to identify the causative factors of porcine ear necrosis syndrome (PENS) in 72 pigs, 5.5-10. weeks in age housed on nine farms. Biopsy samples of ear pinnae were collected from all piglets for bacteriology, histopathology and in situ hybridization for porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). At the same time, serum samples were taken for serological analysis and viral PCR, and feed was sampled for mycotoxin analysis.The initial lesion of PENS seemed to be a focal epidermal necrosis. Streptococci were isolated from 44 and staphylococci from 36 pinnae. PCV2 could not be detected by in situ hybridization or qPCR. Seven piglets were positive for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and one for Mycoplasma suis. One piglet had antibodies against Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. No infectious agents were found in 15 samples. Positive virology and parasitology were often found alongside positive bacteriology. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and ergot alkaloids were detected in feed. The findings suggest that PENS is multifactorial in origin and that although infectious agents can be involved in the development of the syndrome they are not the exclusive triggering factor. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Oevermann A.,University of Bern | Di Palma S.,Institute of Animal Pathology | Doherr M.G.,University of Bern | Abril C.,Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology | And 2 more authors.
Brain Pathology | Year: 2010

Listeriosis is a serious food-borne disease with increasing frequency in humans and ruminants. Despite the facts that in both hosts, listeriosis can occur as rhombencephalitis and ruminants are a reservoir of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) strains pathogenic for humans, little work has been done on the pathogenesis in ruminants. This study investigates the neuropathogenesis of listeric encephalitis in over 200 natural cases in cattle, sheep and goats by analyzing anatomical distribution, severity, bacterial load and temporal evolution of the lesions. Our results suggest that LM gains access to the brainstem of all three species via axonal migration not only along the trigeminal nerve, but also along other nerves. The ensuing encephalitis does not remain restricted to the brainstem. Rather, LM spreads further from the brainstem into rostral brain regions likely by intracerebral axonal migration. Significant differences in severity of the lesions and bacterial load were found between cattle and small ruminants, which may be caused by species-specific properties of antibacterial immune responses. As histopathological lesions of human rhombencephalitis caused by LM strongly resemble those of ruminants, the disease likely has a similar pathogenesis in both hosts. © 2009 International Society of Neuropathology.


Haerdi-Landerer M.C.,ETH Zurich | Steiner A.,Clinic for Ruminants | Suter M.M.,Institute of Animal Pathology
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

The aim of the study was to evaluate bovine synoviocyte culture as an in vitro model to test new intra-articular drugs. The inflammatory reaction pattern of synoviocytes as compared to fibroblasts was studied over nine passages. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was assessed after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Immunohistochemical markers were used to identify synoviocyte populations. Primary synoviocytes expressed markedly higher amounts of interleukin-1β mRNA and tumour necrosis factor-α mRNA than fibroblasts after stimulation. This difference was lost over two passages. CD68-positive macrophage-like synoviocytes diminished over three passages, which may explain the reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Primary bovine synoviocytes appear to be an appropriate and optimised model for testing novel drugs for cattle, because their response may more closely reflect in vivo tissue responses compared to cultured cell lines. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Stohr A.C.,University of Hohenheim | Hoffmann A.,University of Zürich | Papp T.,University of Hohenheim | Papp T.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

Several edible frogs (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) collected into a single group from various ponds in Europe died suddenly with reddening of the skin (legs, abdomen) and haemorrhages in the gastrointestinal tract. Ranavirus was detected in some of the dead frogs using PCR, and virus was also isolated in cell culture. Over the following 3. years, another two outbreaks occurred with low to high mortality in between asymptomatic periods. In the first 2. years, the same ranavirus was detected repeatedly, but a new ranavirus was isolated in association with the second mass-mortality event. The two different ranaviruses were characterized based on nucleotide sequences from four genomic regions, namely, major capsid protein, DNA polymerase, ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase alpha and beta subunit genes. The sequences showed slight variations to each other or GenBank entries and both clustered to the Rana esculenta virus (REV-like) clade in the phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, a quiescent infection was demonstrated in two individuals. By comparing samples taken before and after transport and caging in groups it was possible to identify the pond of origin and a ranavirus was detected for the first time in wild amphibians in Germany. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Haerdi-Landerer M.C.,ETH Zurich | Habermacher J.,Clinic for Ruminants | Wenger B.,Clinic for Ruminants | Suter M.M.,Institute of Animal Pathology | Steiner A.,Clinic for Ruminants
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2010

The search for an effective treatment for septic arthritis is ongoing. Current therapies are expensive since they require repeated joint lavage and long term antibiotic treatment. Local application of antimicrobial drugs is advantageous because high concentrations can be attained at the infection site, although repeated injections increase the risk of superinfection of the joint. Thus, slow release formulations, which have the advantage of local treatment yet single application of the drug, are appealing. Antibiotics used in slow release formulations are selected for tissue compatibility, an appropriate antibacterial spectrum, and stability both during the mixing procedure and within the carrier during the release period. Ideally the carriers should be bioresorbable. Promising reports on the clinical use of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mixed with several different antibiotics, and of collagen sponges impregnated with gentamicin, should encourage the search for formulations optimally adapted to veterinary medical requirements. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Pompini M.,University of Lausanne | Buser A.M.,Ecogenics GmbH | Thali M.R.,Ecogenics GmbH | Von Siebenthal B.A.,University of Lausanne | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2013

On the basis of the experiments carried out over various years, it was concluded that (1) grayling Thymallus thymallus and brown trout Salmo trutta are resistant to temperature-induced sex reversal at ecologically relevant temperatures, (2) environmental sex reversal is unlikely to cause the persistent sex ratio distortion observed in at least one of the study populations and (3) sex-specific tolerance of temperature-related stress may be the cause of distorted sex ratios in populations of T. thymallus or S. trutta. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.


Hochwartner O.,Schwarzenhaidestrasse 41 | Loupal G.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Wildgoose W.H.,Midland Veterinary Surgery | Schmidt-Posthaus H.,Institute of Animal Pathology
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2010

This report describes the occurrence of renal papillary cystic adenomas and adenocarcinomas in oscars Astronotus ocellatus Cuvier, 1829. Samples from 5 oscars with abdominal swelling were collected between 1996 and 2004 and compared to a published case from the USA. Macroscopically, all cases revealed a large, well-demarcated, greyish-brown nodular mass in a retroperitoneal position within the body cavity, and originating from the posterior kidney. Histologically, these neoplasms were composed of epithelial cells, which were arranged in papillary cystic tubular structures and partly covered by cilia. In this study, microscopic and ultrastructural examination confirmed that the origin of the neoplasm was the proximal tubules of the kidney. © Inter-Research 2010.

Loading Institute of Animal Pathology collaborators
Loading Institute of Animal Pathology collaborators