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Muri, Switzerland

Stohr A.C.,University of Hohenheim | Hoffmann A.,University of Zurich | Papp T.,University of Hohenheim | Papp T.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

Several edible frogs (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) collected into a single group from various ponds in Europe died suddenly with reddening of the skin (legs, abdomen) and haemorrhages in the gastrointestinal tract. Ranavirus was detected in some of the dead frogs using PCR, and virus was also isolated in cell culture. Over the following 3. years, another two outbreaks occurred with low to high mortality in between asymptomatic periods. In the first 2. years, the same ranavirus was detected repeatedly, but a new ranavirus was isolated in association with the second mass-mortality event. The two different ranaviruses were characterized based on nucleotide sequences from four genomic regions, namely, major capsid protein, DNA polymerase, ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase alpha and beta subunit genes. The sequences showed slight variations to each other or GenBank entries and both clustered to the Rana esculenta virus (REV-like) clade in the phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, a quiescent infection was demonstrated in two individuals. By comparing samples taken before and after transport and caging in groups it was possible to identify the pond of origin and a ranavirus was detected for the first time in wild amphibians in Germany. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Haerdi-Landerer M.C.,ETH Zurich | Steiner A.,Clinic for Ruminants | Suter M.M.,Institute of Animal Pathology
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

The aim of the study was to evaluate bovine synoviocyte culture as an in vitro model to test new intra-articular drugs. The inflammatory reaction pattern of synoviocytes as compared to fibroblasts was studied over nine passages. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was assessed after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Immunohistochemical markers were used to identify synoviocyte populations. Primary synoviocytes expressed markedly higher amounts of interleukin-1β mRNA and tumour necrosis factor-α mRNA than fibroblasts after stimulation. This difference was lost over two passages. CD68-positive macrophage-like synoviocytes diminished over three passages, which may explain the reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Primary bovine synoviocytes appear to be an appropriate and optimised model for testing novel drugs for cattle, because their response may more closely reflect in vivo tissue responses compared to cultured cell lines. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Stidworthy M.F.,International Zoo Veterinary Group | Garner M.M.,Northwest ZooPath | Bradway D.S.,Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory | Westfall B.D.,Sea For Life | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Pathology | Year: 2014

Scuticociliatosis is an economically important, frequently fatal disease of marine fish in aquaculture, caused by histophagous ciliated protozoa in the subclass Scuticociliatida of the phylum Ciliophora. A rapidly lethal systemic scuticociliate infection is described that affected aquarium-captive zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum), Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni), and a Japanese horn shark (Heterodontus japonicus). Animals died unexpectedly or after a brief period of lethargy or behavioral abnormality. Gross findings included necrohemorrhagic hepatitis and increased volumes of celomic fluid. Histologically, 1 or more of a triad of necrotizing hepatitis, necrotizing meningoencephalitis, and thrombosing branchitis were seen in all cases, with necrotizing vasculitis or intravascular fibrinocellular thrombi. Lesions contained variably abundant invading ciliated protozoa. Molecular identification by polymerase chain reaction from formalin-fixed tissues identified these as the scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi (syn. Miamiensis avidus), a novel and potentially emergent pathogen in sharks. © The Author(s) 2013.

Goldmann T.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Goldmann T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Overlack N.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Moller F.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | And 6 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Translational read-through-inducing drugs (TRIDs) promote read-through of nonsense mutations, placing them in the spotlight of current gene-based therapeutic research. Here, we compare for the first time the relative efficacies of new-generation aminoglycosides NB30, NB54 and the chemical compound PTC124 on retinal toxicity and read-through efficacy of a nonsense mutation in the USH1C gene, which encodes the scaffold protein harmonin. This mutation causes the human Usher syndrome, the most common form of inherited deaf-blindness. We quantify read-through efficacy of the TRIDs in cell culture and show the restoration of harmonin function. We do not observe significant differences in the read-through efficacy of the TRIDs in retinal cultures; however, we show an excellent biocompatibility in retinal cultures with read-through versus toxicity evidently superior for NB54 and PTC124. In addition, in vivo administration of NB54 and PTC124 induced recovery of the full-length harmonin a1 with the same efficacy. The high biocompatibilities combined with the sustained read-through efficacies of these drugs emphasize the potential of NB54 and PTC124 in treating nonsense mutation-based retinal disorders. © 2012 The Authors.

Haerdi-Landerer M.C.,ETH Zurich | Habermacher J.,Clinic for Ruminants | Wenger B.,Clinic for Ruminants | Suter M.M.,Institute of Animal Pathology | Steiner A.,Clinic for Ruminants
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2010

The search for an effective treatment for septic arthritis is ongoing. Current therapies are expensive since they require repeated joint lavage and long term antibiotic treatment. Local application of antimicrobial drugs is advantageous because high concentrations can be attained at the infection site, although repeated injections increase the risk of superinfection of the joint. Thus, slow release formulations, which have the advantage of local treatment yet single application of the drug, are appealing. Antibiotics used in slow release formulations are selected for tissue compatibility, an appropriate antibacterial spectrum, and stability both during the mixing procedure and within the carrier during the release period. Ideally the carriers should be bioresorbable. Promising reports on the clinical use of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mixed with several different antibiotics, and of collagen sponges impregnated with gentamicin, should encourage the search for formulations optimally adapted to veterinary medical requirements. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

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