Klevenhusen F.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds |
Hollmann M.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds |
Podstatzky-Lichtenstein L.,Institute for Organic Farming and Biodiversity |
Aschenbach J.R.,Free University of Berlin |
Zebeli Q.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013
High-producing ruminants are commonly fed large amounts of concentrate to meet their high energy demands for rapid growth or high milk production. However, this feeding strategy can severely impair rumen functioning, leading to subacute ruminal acidosis. Subacute ruminal acidosis might have consequences for electrophysiological properties by changing the net ion transfer and permeability of ruminal epithelia, which may increase the uptake of toxic compounds generated in the rumen into the systemic circulation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of excessive barley feeding on the electrophysiological and barrier functions of the ruminal epithelium and serum inflammation and ketogenesis markers after a long-term feeding challenge, using growing goats as a ruminant model. A feeding trial was carried out with growing goats allocated to 1 of the 3 groups (n = 5-6 animals/group), with diets consisting exclusively of hay (control diet) or hay with 30 or 60% barley grain. Samples of the ventral ruminal epithelium were taken after euthanasia and instantly subjected to Ussing chamber experiments, where electrophysiological properties of the epithelium were measured in parallel with the permeability of marker molecules of different sizes [fluorescein 5(6)-isothiocyanate and horseradish peroxidase] from luminal to apical side. Additionally, ruminal fluid and blood samples were taken at the beginning of the experiment as well as shortly before euthanasia. Ruminal fluid samples were analyzed for volatile fatty acids and pH, whereas blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide, serum amyloid A, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Electrophysiological data indicated that barley feeding increased the epithelial short-circuit current compared with the control. Tissue conductance also increased with dietary barley inclusion. As shown with both marker molecules, permeability of ruminal epithelia increased with barley inclusion in the diet. Despite a lowered ruminal pH associated with increased volatile fatty acids (such as propionate and butyrate) concentrations as well as altered epithelial properties in response to high-grain feeding, no signs of inflammation became apparent, as blood serum amyloid A concentrations remained unaffected by diet. However, greater amounts of grain in the diet were associated with a quadratic increase in lipopolysaccharide concentration in the serum. Also, increasing the amounts of barley grain in the diet resulted in a tendency to quadratically augment serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and, hence, the alimentary ketogenesis. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of barley inclusion in the development of subacute ruminal acidosis in relation to ruminal epithelial damage and the translocation of toxic compounds in vivo. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.
Hollmann M.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds |
Miller I.,Institute of Medical Biochemistry |
Hummel K.,VetCore Facility for Research |
Sabitzer S.,VetCore Facility for Research |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 spots commonly detected in all gels, 64 spots were significantly regulated, which were traced back to 24 unique proteins. Interestingly, the expression profiles of several chaperone proteins with important cellular protective functions such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-6, serpin H1, protein disulfide-isomerase, and selenium-binding protein were collectively downregulated in response to high dietary energy supply. Similar regulation patterns were obtained for some other proteins involved in transport or metabolic functions. In contrast, metabolic enzymes like retinal dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor were upregulated in response to high energy diet. Lower expressions of chaperone proteins in the rumen epithelial cells in response to high energy supply may suggest that these cells were less protected against the potentially harmful rumen toxic compounds, which might have consequences for rumen and systemic health. Our findings also suggest that energy-rich diets and the resulting acidotic insult may render rumen epithelial cells more vulnerable to cellular damage by attenuating their cell defense system, hence facilitating the impairment of rumen barrier function, typically observed in energy-rich fed ruminants. © 2013 Hollmann et al.
PubMed | University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Institute for Veterinary Public Health, Institute for Milk Hygiene and Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds
Type: | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2017
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a prevalent metabolic disorder in cattle, characterized by intermittent drops in ruminal pH. This study investigated the effect of a gradual adaptation and continuously induced long-term SARA challenge diet on the epimural bacterial community structure in the rumen of cows. Eight rumen-cannulated nonlactating Holstein cows were transitioned over 1 wk from a forage-based baseline feeding diet (grass silage-hay mix) to a SARA challenge diet, which they were fed for 4 wk. The SARA challenge diet consisted of 60% concentrates (dry matter basis) and 40% grass silage-hay mix. Rumen papillae biopsies were taken at the baseline, on the last day of the 1-wk adaptation, and on the last day of the 4-wk SARA challenge period; ruminal pH was measured using wireless sensors. We isolated DNA from papillae samples for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequencing results of most abundant key phylotypes were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Although they were fed similar amounts of concentrate, cows responded differently in terms of ruminal pH during the SARA feeding challenge. Cows were therefore classified as responders (n = 4) and nonresponders (n = 4): only responders met the SARA criterion of a ruminal pH drop below 5.8 for longer than 330 min/d. Data showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla, and at genus level, Campylobacter and Kingella showed highest relative abundance, at 15.5 and 7.8%, respectively. Diversity analyses revealed a significant increase of diversity after the 1-wk adaptation but a decrease of diversity and species richness after the 4-wk SARA feeding challenge, although without distinction between responders and nonresponders. At the level of the operational taxonomic unit, we detected diet-specific shifts in epimural community structure, but in the overall epimural bacterial community structure, we found no differences between responders and nonresponders. Correlation analysis revealed significant associations between grain intake and operational taxonomic unit abundance. The study revealed major shifts in the 3 dominating phyla and, most importantly, a loss of diversity in the epimural bacterial communities during a long-term SARA diet challenge, in which 60% concentrate supply for 4 wk was instrumental rather than the magnitude of the drop of ruminal pH below 5.8.
Ghareeb K.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds |
Awad W.A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna |
Mohnl M.,Biomin Holding GmbH |
Schatzmayr G.,Research Center |
Bohm J.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2013
Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonotic disease in humans worldwide. Poultry meat contaminated by Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is an important source of this enteric zoonosis. Broiler chickens are the common natural host for this pathogen and infected birds carry a very high Campylobacter load in their gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, intervention at the farm level by reducing pathogen colonisation should be taken into consideration in any control policy. In addition, hygienic measures at the farm and control measures during carcass processing can reduce Campylobacter numbers on the retail product. It is important to differentiate between prevention and colonisation-reducing measures, which intervene at a different stage of the infection process. Several approaches have been conducted to reduce the number of Campylobacter in poultry, such as vaccination, passive immunisation, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, organic acids or their derivatives and medium chain of fatty acids, all with varying degrees of success. Nonetheless, to date there is no reliable and practical intervention measure available to reduce colonisation of the broiler gut with Campylobacter. A possible way to reduce Campylobacter contamination in poultry is to develop new strategies at the primary production level. As a consequence, it has become necessary to develop alternatives such as beneficial microorganisms (probiotics). The use of probiotics can help to improve the natural defence of animals against pathogenic bacteria and is an effective approach for livestock to reduce bacterial contamination. This review summarises current on-farm control options to reduce the prevalence and colonisation of Campylobacter in poultry. The interaction between poultry welfare and Campylobacter colonisation is also discussed. © 2013 World's Poultry Science Association.
PubMed | a Institute of Livestock Research, Assiut University and Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of animal nutrition | Year: 2016
The study evaluated the long-term influence of feeding ground barley treated with lactic acid (LA) alone or with LA and heat on performance, energy and protein balance in dairy cows. Thirty cows were fed three diets differing in the treatment of barley grain, either unprocessed ground barley (Control), ground barley steeped in 1% LA at room temperature (LA-treated barley) or ground barley steeped in 1% LA with an additional heating at 55C (LAH-treated barley). Cows were studied from week 3 to 17 post-partum. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and composition and body weight (BW) were measured daily. Estimated energy and protein balances were calculated and blood samples were collected three times during the experiment and analysed for common metabolites of energy and lipid metabolism. Digestibility of different treated barley and other dietary ingredients was investigated in vivo using four wethers. The treatment of barley with LA and LAH increased the digestibility of organic matter (OM) by approximately 5% and the content of metabolisable energy by 0.5-0.6MJ/kg DM. Data showed no effect of feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley at 39% of DM on overall DMI, BW, BW change, milk production and composition and on the blood variables studied. Diet influenced the estimated balances of net energy of lactation (p<0.01) and the content of utilisable protein at the duodenum (p=0.07) with cows fed the diet with LA-treated barley showing improved balances. In conclusion, feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley had no influence on performance, milk composition and blood metabolites, but LA treatment without heat seems to improve the energy balance of cows.
Metzler-Zebeli B.U.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds |
Metzler-Zebeli B.U.,University of Vienna |
Deckardt K.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds |
Schollenberger M.,University of Hohenheim |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP 6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP 6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance. © 2014 Metzler-Zebeli et al.
Humer E.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds |
Schedle K.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2016
Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. © 2016.
PubMed | University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna and Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds
Type: | Journal: Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) | Year: 2016
Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species.
Iqbal S.,University of Alberta |
Zebeli Q.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds |
Mansmann D.A.,University of Alberta |
Dunn S.M.,University of Alberta |
Ametaj B.N.,University of Alberta
Innate Immunity | Year: 2014
The study evaluated the effects of repeated oral exposure to LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on immune responses of dairy cows. Thirty pregnant Holstein cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. Cows received orally either 2 ml of 0.85% sterile saline solution (control group), or 2 ml of sterile saline solution containing three doses of LPS from Escherichia coli 0111 : B4 along with a flat dose of LTA from Bacillus subtilis. Blood and saliva samples were collected and analyzed for serum amyloid A (SAA); LPS-binding protein (LBP); anti-LPS plasma IgA, IgG and IgM; TNF-Î±; and IL-1. Results showed greater concentrations of IgA in the saliva of treated cows compared with the controls (P < 0.01). Treated cows had lower plasma concentrations of anti-LPS IgA, IgG and IgM Abs, and TNF-Î± than the controls (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for the concentrations of plasma LBP (P = 0.06) and haptoglobin (P = 0.10) to be lesser in the treatment group, although no differences were found in the concentration of plasma SAA and IL-1 (P > 0.10). Overall, the results of this study indicate that repeated oral administration with LPS and LTA stimulates innate and humoral immune responses in periparturient dairy cows. © 2013 The Author(s).
Khiaosa-Ard R.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds |
Zebeli Q.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013
The present study aimed at investigating the effects of essential oils and their bioactive compounds (EOBC) on rumen fermentation in vivo as well as animal performance and feed efficiency in different ruminant species, using a meta-analysis approach. Ruminant species were classified into 3 classes consisting of beef cattle, dairy cattle, and small ruminants. Two datasets (i.e., rumen fermentation and animal performance) were constructed, according to the available dependent variables within each animal class, from 28 publications (34 experiments) comprising a total of 97 dietary treatments. In addition, changes in rumen fermentation parameters relative to controls (i.e., no EOBC supplementation) of all animal classes were computed. Data were statistically analyzed within each animal class to evaluate the EOBC dose effect, taking into account variations of other variables across experiments (e.g., diet, feeding duration). The dose effect of EOBC on relative changes in fermentation parameters were analyzed across all animal classes. The primary results were that EOBC at doses <0.75 g/kg diet DM acted as a potential methane inhibitor in the rumen as a result of decreased acetate to propionate ratio. These responses were more pronounced in beef cattle (methane, P = 0.001; acetate to propionate ratio, P = 0.005) than in small ruminants (methane, P = 0.068; acetate to propionate ratio, P = 0.056) and in dairy cattle (P > 0.05), respectively. The analysis of relative changes in rumen fermentation variables suggests that EOBC affected protozoa numbers (P < 0.001) but only high doses (>0.20 g/kg DM) of EOBC had an inhibitory effect on this variable whereas lower doses promoted the number. For performance data, because numbers of observations in beef cattle and small ruminants were small, only those of dairy cattle (DMI, milk yield and milk composition, and feed efficiency) were analyzed. The results revealed no effect of EOBC dose on most parameters, except increased milk protein percentage (P < 0.001) and content (P = 0.006). It appears that EOBC supplementation can enhance rumen fermentation in such a way (i.e., decreased acetate to propionate ratio) that may favor beef production. High doses of EOBC do not necessarily modify rumen fermentation or improve animal performance and feed efficiency. Furthermore, additional attention should be paid to diet composition and supplementation period when evaluating the effects of EOBC in ruminants. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.