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Mann E.,Institute of Milk Hygiene | Mann E.,Research Cluster Animal Gut Health | Schmitz-Esser S.,Institute of Milk Hygiene | Schmitz-Esser S.,Research Cluster Animal Gut Health | And 9 more authors.

Dietary composition largely influences pig's gastrointestinal microbiota and represents a useful prophylactic tool against enteric disturbances in young pigs. Despite the importance for host-microbe interactions and bacterial colonization, dietary responses of the mucosa-associated bacterial communities are less well investigated. In the present study, we characterized the mucosa-associated bacterial communities at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach, ileum and colon, and identified shifts in these communities in response to different dietary calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P) contents (100% versus 190% of the Ca and P requirements) in combination with two basal diets (wheat-barley- or corn-based) in weaned pigs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 93 mucosal samples yielded 447,849 sequences, clustering into 997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity level. OTUs were assigned to 198 genera belonging to 14 different phyla. Correlation-based networks revealed strong interactions among OTUs at the various gastrointestinal sites. Our data describe a previously not reported high diversity and species richness at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach in weaned pigs. Moreover, high versus adequate Ca-P content significantly promoted Lactobacillus by 14.9% units (1.4 fold change) at the gastric Pars nonglandularis (P = 0.035). Discriminant analysis revealed dynamic changes in OTU composition in response to dietary cereals and Ca-P contents at all gastrointestinal sites which were less distinguishable at higher taxonomic levels. Overall, this study revealed a distinct mucosa-associated bacterial community at the different gut sites, and a strong effect of high Ca-P diets on the gastric community, thereby markedly expanding our comprehension on mucosa-associated microbiota and their diet-related dynamics in weaned pigs. © 2014 Mann et al. Source

Iqbal S.,University of Alberta | Zebeli Q.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds | Mansmann D.A.,University of Alberta | Dunn S.M.,University of Alberta | Ametaj B.N.,University of Alberta
Innate Immunity

The study evaluated the effects of repeated oral exposure to LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on immune responses of dairy cows. Thirty pregnant Holstein cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. Cows received orally either 2 ml of 0.85% sterile saline solution (control group), or 2 ml of sterile saline solution containing three doses of LPS from Escherichia coli 0111 : B4 along with a flat dose of LTA from Bacillus subtilis. Blood and saliva samples were collected and analyzed for serum amyloid A (SAA); LPS-binding protein (LBP); anti-LPS plasma IgA, IgG and IgM; TNF-α; and IL-1. Results showed greater concentrations of IgA in the saliva of treated cows compared with the controls (P < 0.01). Treated cows had lower plasma concentrations of anti-LPS IgA, IgG and IgM Abs, and TNF-α than the controls (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for the concentrations of plasma LBP (P = 0.06) and haptoglobin (P = 0.10) to be lesser in the treatment group, although no differences were found in the concentration of plasma SAA and IL-1 (P > 0.10). Overall, the results of this study indicate that repeated oral administration with LPS and LTA stimulates innate and humoral immune responses in periparturient dairy cows. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Metzler-Zebeli B.U.,University of Vienna | Lawlor P.G.,Teagasc | Magowan E.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Zebeli Q.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds

Sample preservation and recovery of intact DNA from gut samples may affect the inferred gut microbiota composition in pigs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the freezing process and storage temperature prior to DNA extraction on DNA recovery and bacterial community composition in pig feces using quantitative PCR. Fresh fecal samples from six growing pigs were collected and five aliquots of each prepared: (1) total DNA extracted immediately; (2) stored at −20 °C; (3) snap frozen and stored at −20 °C; (4) stored at −80 °C; and (5) snap frozen and stored at −80 °C. Results showed that DNA yields from fresh fecal samples were, on average, 25 to 30 ng higher than those from the various stored samples. The DNA extracted from fresh samples had more gene copies of total bacteria and all targeted bacterial groups per gram feces compared to DNA extraction from frozen samples. Data presentation also modified the observed effect of freeze storage; as results for Lactobacillus group, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Clostridium cluster IV, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas and Enterobacteriaceae showed the opposite effect when expressed as relative abundance, by being greater in freeze stored feces than in fresh feces. Snap freezing increased the relative proportion of Clostridium cluster IV by 24%. In conclusion, the freezing process affected DNA yield and bacterial abundances, whereas snap freezing and storage temperature had only little influence on abundances of bacterial populations in pig feces. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Humer E.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds | Schedle K.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology

Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. © 2016. Source

Klevenhusen F.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds | Hollmann M.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds | Podstatzky-Lichtenstein L.,Institute for Organic Farming and Biodiversity | Krametter-Frotscher R.,Clinic for Ruminants | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science

High-producing ruminants are commonly fed large amounts of concentrate to meet their high energy demands for rapid growth or high milk production. However, this feeding strategy can severely impair rumen functioning, leading to subacute ruminal acidosis. Subacute ruminal acidosis might have consequences for electrophysiological properties by changing the net ion transfer and permeability of ruminal epithelia, which may increase the uptake of toxic compounds generated in the rumen into the systemic circulation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of excessive barley feeding on the electrophysiological and barrier functions of the ruminal epithelium and serum inflammation and ketogenesis markers after a long-term feeding challenge, using growing goats as a ruminant model. A feeding trial was carried out with growing goats allocated to 1 of the 3 groups (n = 5-6 animals/group), with diets consisting exclusively of hay (control diet) or hay with 30 or 60% barley grain. Samples of the ventral ruminal epithelium were taken after euthanasia and instantly subjected to Ussing chamber experiments, where electrophysiological properties of the epithelium were measured in parallel with the permeability of marker molecules of different sizes [fluorescein 5(6)-isothiocyanate and horseradish peroxidase] from luminal to apical side. Additionally, ruminal fluid and blood samples were taken at the beginning of the experiment as well as shortly before euthanasia. Ruminal fluid samples were analyzed for volatile fatty acids and pH, whereas blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide, serum amyloid A, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Electrophysiological data indicated that barley feeding increased the epithelial short-circuit current compared with the control. Tissue conductance also increased with dietary barley inclusion. As shown with both marker molecules, permeability of ruminal epithelia increased with barley inclusion in the diet. Despite a lowered ruminal pH associated with increased volatile fatty acids (such as propionate and butyrate) concentrations as well as altered epithelial properties in response to high-grain feeding, no signs of inflammation became apparent, as blood serum amyloid A concentrations remained unaffected by diet. However, greater amounts of grain in the diet were associated with a quadratic increase in lipopolysaccharide concentration in the serum. Also, increasing the amounts of barley grain in the diet resulted in a tendency to quadratically augment serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and, hence, the alimentary ketogenesis. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of barley inclusion in the development of subacute ruminal acidosis in relation to ruminal epithelial damage and the translocation of toxic compounds in vivo. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Source

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