Institute of Animal Nutrition

Vienna, Austria

Institute of Animal Nutrition

Vienna, Austria
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Zebeli Q.,University of Alberta | Zebeli Q.,Institute of Animal Nutrition | Beitz D.C.,Iowa State University | Bradford B.J.,Kansas State University | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Clinical Pathology | Year: 2013

Background: Milk fever, a metabolic disease of dairy cattle, is associated with perturbations of calcium homeostasis, the pathogenesis of which is not yet completely understood. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate plasma concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide and selected minerals and metabolites in periparturient cows with and without milk fever. Methods: Plasma concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide, as well as calcium, phosphate, magnesium, iron, glucose, lactate, and cortisol, were determined in multiple plasma samples from Jersey cows with and without spontaneous milk fever. Results: Cows affected by milk fever (n = 5) had lower concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide (P = .038) and inorganic phosphate (P < .001) in plasma than did the controls (n = 5). Also, these cows tended to have lower calcium concentrations (P = .071). Magnesium, iron, lactate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations were comparable between both groups of cows (P > .10). Around the day of calving, plasma concentrations of lactate, glucose, and cortisol increased and the concentration of iron decreased in all cows (P ≤ .01). Conclusions: Despite the limited number of cows evaluated, this report is the first to indicate lowered concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide as part of the metabolic changes during milk fever in cows. Further work with a larger cohort of animals is warranted to understand the precise role of calcitonin gene-related peptide and the potential associations with disturbances in plasma minerals typically observed during milk fever. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

Zebeli Q.,Institute of Animal Nutrition | Zebeli Q.,Research cluster Animal Gut Health | Metzler-Zebeli B.U.,Research cluster Animal Gut Health | Ametaj B.N.,University of Alberta
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

This study examined the extent by which changes in the concentrate level and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in the diet as well as the severity of acidotic insult, measured as the duration time of rumen pH below 6.0 and daily mean rumen pH, and the concentration of endotoxin in the rumen fluid are involved in the development of inflammatory conditions in cattle. A meta-analytical approach accounting for inter- and intraexperimental variation was used to generate prediction models, and data from recent studies were used to parameterize these models. A total of 10 recently conducted experiments with 43 different dietary treatments fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in this study. Diets of all of the experiments included in this meta-analysis were based on rapidly degradable grain sources, such as barley and wheat, and the findings of this study apply only to these kinds of diets. Data indicated that greater levels of concentrate in the diet were associated with increased concentrations of rumen endotoxin (R2=0.27), plasma haptoglobin (R2=0.19), and serum amyloid A (SAA) level (R2=0.46). Similar correlations, but in opposite directions, were observed between dietary NDF content and rumen endotoxin (R2=0.39) and plasma SAA concentrations (R2=0.22). The meta-analysis revealed that the relationships between those variables were not linear. Additionally, the breakpoint model fitted to the data of rumen endotoxin, plasma haptoglobin, and SAA indicated the presence of a threshold level of dietary concentrate and NDF, above which those responses became linear to increasing amounts of concentrate or decreasing contents of NDF in the diet. Also, feeding cattle more than 44.1% concentrate or less than 39.2% NDF in the diet was associated with a linear increase in the risk of systemic inflammation. Low daily mean rumen pH (R2=0.38) and duration of rumen pH <6.0 (R2=0.59) were associated with increased concentrations of endotoxin in the rumen fluid; although those events were not always associated with systemic inflammation. Accordingly, only 15 to 21% of the overall variation in the responses of SAA was explained by variables of rumen pH, whereas the concentrate level in the diet accounted for 46% of this variation. In conclusion, data from this study indicated the presence of thresholds of dietary concentrate and NDF levels in the diets based on rapidly fermentable grains beyond which the risk of systemic inflammation in cattle increases linearly. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Nasrollahi S.M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Khorvash M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Ghorbani G.R.,Isfahan University of Technology | Teimouri-Yansari A.,University of Agriculture and Natural Resource Science of Sari | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2012

This study investigated the effects of, and interactions between, dietary grain source and marginal changes in alfalfa hay (AH) particle size (PS) on digestive processes of dairy cows. A total of eight Holstein dairy cows (175 days in milk) were allocated in a replicated 4 ã- 4 Latin square design with four 21-day periods. The experiment was a 2 ã- 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of theoretical PS of AH (fine = 15 mm or long = 30 mm) each combined with two different sources of cereal grains (barley grain alone or barley plus corn grain in a 50 : 50 ratio). Results showed that cows consuming diets supplemented with corn had greater dry matter and nutrient intakes (P < 0.01), independent of forage PS. In addition, the apparent digestibility of fiber fractions was greater for diets supplemented with corn (P = 0.01). The feeding of barley grain-based diets was associated with greater apparent digestibility of non-fiber carbohydrates, and this variable was even greater when long AH was fed (P = 0.04). Moreover, the feeding of long AH resulted in longer time spent eating (P = 0.03) and higher pH (P < 0.01), as well as a tendency for higher acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen fluid (P = 0.06) at 3 h post feeding. In conclusion, the results indicated that the marginal increase of PS of AH may prolong eating time and improve rumen fermentation, particularly in diets based on barley grain. Partial substitution of barley grain by corn can improve feed intake and fiber digestibility in mid-lactation dairy cows. © Copyright The Animal Consortium 2012.

Ametaj B.N.,University of Alberta | Sivaraman S.,University of Alberta | Dunn S.M.,University of Alberta | Zebeli Q.,Institute of Animal Nutrition
Innate Immunity | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated oral exposure to LPS on humoral immune responses of periparturient dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were assigned to two treatment groups 2 wk before the expected day of parturition. Cows were administered orally, twice weekly at wk -2, -1 and +1 around parturition, with the following treatments: 3 ml saline; or 3 ml of saline containing LPS from Escherichia coli 0111:B4. The amount of LPS administered during wk -2, -1, and +1 was 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 μg/kg body weight, respectively. Multiple blood samples were collected by jugular vein and various immune and clinical variables were measured. Results indicated that, on one hand, concentrations of plasma IgG anti-LPS Abs decreased (P < 0.01) and those of IgM anti-LPS Abs increased (P < 0.01) in cows treated with oral LPS. On the other hand, there were no overall differences (P > 0.05) in the concentrations of serum amyloid A, LPS-binding protein, haptoglobin, cortisol, IgA anti-LPS Abs in the plasma, feed intake, body temperature and rumen contractions rate between the control and treatment groups. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that repeated oral administration with LPS from E. coli 0111:B4 has the potential to stimulate humoral immune responses in periparturient dairy cows. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions:

Awad W.A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Ghareeb K.,South Valley University | Dadak A.,Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology | Gille L.,Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and it is a significant contaminant due to its frequent occurrence at toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Deoxynivalenol has negative influences on the health and performance of chicks. However, there is little information available regarding the effect of DON on DNA fragmentation in blood lymphocytes. In addition, the effects of Mycofix select (Biomin GmbH, Herzogenburg, Austria) supplementation to DON-contaminated broiler diets on lymphocyte DNA have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the effect of DON on lipid peroxidation and lymphocyte DNA fragmentation in broilers and to evaluate the potential of Mycofix select in the prevention of toxin-mediated changes. Thirty-two 1-d-old (Ross 308 male) broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group was fed a noncontaminated diet, and a second group was fed the same diet but supplemented with Mycofix select (0.25%). A third group of broilers was fed a diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg of feed-grade DON/kg of diet, and a fourth group was fed a DON-contaminated diet supplemented with Mycofix select. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was collected and the degree of lymphocyte DNA damage was measured in the plasma by comet assay. Deoxynivalenol increased (P = 0.016) the amount of DNA damage in chicken lymphocytes by 46.8%. Mycofix select protected lymphocyte DNA from the DON effects. To our knowledge, these are the first data on genotoxic effects of a moderate dose of DON on chicken lymphocytes. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in liver and liver enzyme activity did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the diets contaminated with the mycotoxin DON at moderate levels in combination with low-protein feed are able to induce lymphocyte DNA damage in chickens. Supplementation with Mycofix select protected lymphocyte DNA and it was beneficial for maintaining the lymphocyte DNA integrity. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Saleem F.,University of Alberta | Ametaj B.N.,University of Alberta | Bouatra S.,University of Alberta | Mandal R.,University of Alberta | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Dairy cows fed high-grain diets during early lactation have a high incidence of metabolic disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s) of how grain feeding causes disease is not clear. In an effort to understand how this diet transition alters the rumen environment and potentially leads to certain metabolic disorders in dairy cattle, we undertook a comprehensive, quantitative metabolomic analysis of rumen fluid samples from dairy cows fed 4 different diets. Using a combination of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and direct flow injection tandem mass spectroscopy, we identified and quantified 93 metabolites in rumen samples taken from 8 dairy cows fed graded amounts of barley grain (i.e., 0, 15, 30, and 45% of diet dry matter). We also studied temporal changes in the rumen by studying metabolite concentration differences between the first day and the last day of each diet phase following the diet adaptation period. Multivariate analysis showed that rumen metabolites arising from the diet containing 45% barley grain were clearly different from those containing 0, 15, and 30% barley grain. Likewise, a clear separation of the metabolic composition of the ruminal fluid was evident at the beginning and at the end of each diet phase-contrary to the belief that 11. d are suitable for the adaptation of cows to high-grain diets. High-grain diets (>30%) resulted in increased rumen fluid concentrations of several toxic, inflammatory, and unnatural compounds including putrescine, methylamines, ethanolamine, and short-chain fatty acids. Perturbations in several amino acids (phenylalanine, ornithine, lysine, leucine, arginine, valine, and phenylacetylglycine) were also evident. The present study confirms and greatly extends earlier observations on dietary effects on rumen fluid composition and shows that the use of multiple metabolomic platforms permits a far more detailed understanding of metabolic causes and effects. These results may improve our understanding of diet-related rumen metabolism and the influence of grain on the overall health of dairy cattle. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Haring T.,Institute of Animal Nutrition
The Journal of heredity | Year: 2011

The goal of this study was to analyze the mode of inheritance of an overweight body condition in an experimental cat population. The cat population consisted of 95 cats of which 81 cats could be clearly classified into lean or overweight using the body condition scoring system according to Laflamme. The lean or overweight classification was then used for segregation analyses. Complex segregation analyses were employed to test for the significance of one environmental and 4 genetic models (general, mixed inheritance, major gene, and polygene). The general genetic model fit the data significantly better than the environmental model (P ≤ 0.0013). Among all other models employed, the major gene model explained the segregation of the overweight phenotype best. This is the first study in which a genetic component could be shown to be responsible for the development of overweight in cats.

Franz C.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Baser K.H.C.,Anadolu University | Windisch W.,Institute of Animal Nutrition
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2010

The last two decades have seen a substantial increase in the use of aromatic herbs and essential oils as feed additives in animal nutrition. One of the main reasons for this trend is to substitute antibiotic growth promoters, which have been completely banned as feed additives in the European Union since 2006 because they are suspected of contributing substantially to increasing resistance among human pathogens. Recent investigations have shown significant antimicrobial effects of several essential oils and essential oil compounds against enteropathogenic organisms in farm animals. Porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by specific Escherichia coli strains could be controlled by in-feed application of carvacrol-rich essential oils, and the effect of some essential oil components against Clostridium perfringens and necrotic enteritis was confirmed in poultry. In ruminants, an improvement of the digestion was observed, resulting in reduced methanogenesis and nitrogen excretion. In addition, the antioxidative activity of aromatic plants and essential oil compounds contributes to the stability and palatability of animal feed and has, moreover, resulted in an improved shelf-life and quality of animal products, due to reduced oxidation. The 'growth-promoting effect' of essential oils (feed conversion rate, daily weight gain, etc.) is not as evident, since a large number of publications are (commercial) product-driven, lacking data on the starting material. Nonetheless, the overall efficacy of essential oils and aromatic herbs, especially their non-nutritive value with impact on the health status and benefit of animals and humans (via the food chain), is encouraging further research and development in this field. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Zebeli Q.,University of Alberta | Zebeli Q.,Institute of Animal Nutrition | Dunn S.M.,Institute of Animal Nutrition | Ametaj B.N.,Institute of Animal Nutrition
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

Feeding dairy cows diets high in easily degradable carbohydrates increases the incidence of rumen and systemic metabolic disorders; however, the triggering factor is not well understood. In this study, dairy cows were fed 4 different amounts of barley grain-based concentrate at 15, 30, 45, and 60% (dry matter basis) of a total mixed ration to determine whether alterations in the rumen environment would be associated with perturbations of the plasma profile of selected metabolites. In addition, associations among free rumen endotoxin and several plasma metabolites were determined. The study was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 8 rumen-cannulated lactating dairy cows (60±15 d in milk). Multiple rumen fluid and blood plasma samples were collected and analyzed for pH and rumen fluid endotoxin and for concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and lactate in the plasma. Rumen pH decreased below 6.0, from 8 to 12h after the morning feeding, with the augmentation of the proportion of concentrate in the diet of ≥30%. Feeding diets with >30% concentrate resulted in a rise of free endotoxin in the rumen fluid (8.87±0.39 μg/mL). Inclusion of 60% concentrate in the total mixed ration was associated with enhanced concentrations of glucose (64.5±1.0 mg/dL) and lactate (540.9±36.5 μmol/L) and lowered cholesterol (265.5±13.7 mg/dL), BHBA (449.1±47.4 μmol/L), and NEFA (138.8±19.1 μEq/L) in the blood plasma. The regression analysis revealed that greater concentrations of plasma lactate and lower concentrations of cholesterol, BHBA, and NEFA were related to the rise of rumen endotoxin. Interestingly, 93% of the increase in the plasma lactate was explained by the rise of rumen endotoxin. Moreover, the analysis revealed inverse relationships of rumen endotoxin with plasma cholesterol (R2=0.47), BHBA (R2=0.37), and NEFA (R2=0.50) and a biphasic response of plasma insulin (R2=0.58). Taken together, feeding dairy cows diets rich in rumen-degradable carbohydrates and low in fiber led to lower rumen pH and a large accumulation of rumen endotoxin; the latter was correlated with perturbations of plasma metabolites allied to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.

Zebeli Q.,Institute of Animal Nutrition | Aschenbach J.R.,Free University of Berlin | Tafaj M.,University of Hohenheim | Boguhn J.,University of Hohenheim | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Highly fermentable diets require the inclusion of adequate amounts of fiber to reduce the risk of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). To assess the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cattle, the concept of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) has received increasing attention because it amalgamates information on both chemical fiber content and particle size (PS) of the feedstuffs. The nutritional effects of dietary PS and peNDF are complex and involve feed intake behavior (absolute intake and sorting behavior), ruminal mat formation, rumination and salivation, and ruminal motility. Other effects include fermentation characteristics, digesta passage, and nutrient intake and absorption. Moreover, peNDF requirements depend on the fermentability of the starch source (i.e., starch type and endosperm structure). To date, the incomplete understanding of these complex interactions has prevented the establishment of peNDF as a routine method to determine dietary fiber adequacy so far. Therefore, this review is intended to analyze the quantitative effects of and interactions among forage PS, peNDF, and diet fermentability with regard to rumen metabolism and prevention of SARA, and aims to give an overview of the latest achievements in the estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. Recently developed models that synthesize the effects of both peNDF and fermentable starch on rumen metabolism appear to provide an appropriate basis for estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cows. Data suggest that a period lasting more than 5 to 6h/d during which ruminal pH is <5.8 should be avoided to minimize health disturbances due to SARA. The knowledge generated from these modeling approaches recommends that average amounts of 31.2% peNDF inclusive particles >1.18mm (i.e., peNDF >1.18) or 18.5% peNDF inclusive particles >8mm (i.e., peNDF >8) in the diet (DM basis) are required. However, inclusion of a concentration of peNDF >8 in the diet beyond 14.9% of diet DM may lower DM intake level. As such, more research is warranted to develop efficient feeding strategies that encourage inclusion of energy-dense diets without the need to increase their content in peNDF above the threshold that leads to lower DM intake. The latter would require strategies that modulate the fermentability characteristics of the diet and promote absorption and metabolic capacity of ruminal epithelia of dairy cows. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

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