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Sopkova D.,University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice | Andrejcakova Z.,University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice | Vlckova R.,University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice | Danisova O.,University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to determine the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes in the blood serum and seminal plasma of boars from the breeding and insemination centre with regard to their age. Significant quantitative differences in the presence of isoenzymes between blood serum and seminal plasma were recorded. Isoenzyme LDH-C4 in the seminal plasma of breeding boars of both groups was identified in the position between the third and fourth fraction of LDH, although boars from the breeding centre showed significantly lower concentrations. Refrigeration had a negative influence on the activity of LDH isoenzymes in the blood serum after 7 days and in seminal plasma after 3 days of storage. The work extends the knowledge in an insufficiently examined field of veterinary medicine: the distribution and physiological function of LDH in boars focusing on isoenzyme LDH-C4 in seminal plasma. Source

News Article | November 4, 2008
Site: gigaom.com

A number of larger media companies became part of the economic carnage this week — announcing show cancellations, store closings, and more layoffs both in the U.S. and abroad. This round touches a variety of content platforms, including radio, TV and magazines. — Plug gets pulled on “BusinessWeekTV” : BusinessWeek is pulling the plug on “BusinessWeek TV” to keep the focus (and ad revenues) on its core print and online products. The personal finance-based series will run its course through the rest of the year, but executive producer Eric Gonon and eight others will lose their jobs, per The Post. — Rodale cuts: Health and wellness publisher Rodale is cutting about 10 percent of its staff, the company announced today, which amounts to about 115 people. It is eliminating or consolidating some divisions including operations, IT, customer service and some publishing departments. The company is the publisher of Men

In conventional dairy farming, calves are separated from their mothers on the day of their birth. They are then usually kept in single pens for a period of time before being housed in groups. The animals can only develop a good relationship with humans if their caretakers have regular and gentle interactions with them. First author Stephanie Lürzel and her colleagues from the Institute of Animal Husbandry and Animal Welfare at the Vetmeduni Vienna studied 104 Holstein calves at a commercial dairy farm in eastern Germany. Around half of the animals were stroked three minutes a day for a period of 14 days after their birth, whereas the other half was not. Lürzel and master's student Charlotte Münsch stroked the calves on the lower part of the neck. "In earlier studies our team found out that cows especially enjoy being stroked at this spot. The animals' heart rates even fall during stroking," says Lürzel. About 90 days after their birth, stroked calves weighed more than the control group. The gentle contact with humans therefore appears to have a direct influence on the animals' weight gain. "A study from the year 2013 shows that cows that gained weight more quickly before weaning produce more milk. The daily weight gain of the stroked calves in our study was about 3 percent higher than that of the control group. This would translate into around 50 kg more milk per cow per year," Lürzel explains. The researchers examined the quality of the human-animal relationship using the so-called avoidance distance test, which measures the distance at which a calf avoids a person approaching it from the front. Animals with less fear of humans show a lower avoidance distance. In animals that are afraid of people, the avoidance distance is higher. The experiments showed that stroked calves do not avoid people as quickly as animals from the control group. The avoidance distance was lower among the stroked animals. "This test clearly shows that regular stroking has positive effects on the human-animal relationship," Lürzel points out. "In practice, I recommend animal caretakers to maintain regular gentle interactions with their animals. Even if there is not as much time as three minutes a day per calf, regular interactions still have positive effects for the animals." The results were different after calves were disbudded without anaesthesia about 32 days after their birth, as was the usual practice on the study farm. Disbudding is a common procedure at dairy farms: the horn buds are cauterized with a heated iron to destroy them before the horns can grow. After disbudding, the avoidance distances were higher in both groups than before the procedure. Furthermore, animals that had been stroked no longer differed from control calves. "Disbudding, a procedure that without anaesthesia involves enormous pain for the animal, apparently disturbs the good relationship with humans that had been established previously through stroking. Several weeks after disbudding, however, the effect of stroking on the human-animal relationship was visible again," Lürzel explains. On the basis of this and previous study results, ethologist Lürzel recommends gentle interactions with calves: "Farm animals that experience regular interactions with people, either with a veterinarian during a routine check-up or with the farmer during the milking process, benefit from a good relationship with humans." Lürzel dismisses as untenable the opinion of some farmers that cattle should have fear of people in order to increase ease of handling. In the end, regular gentle interactions with the animals also have a positive effect on a farm's commercial success. More information: Stephanie Lürzel et al. The influence of gentle interactions on avoidance distance towards humans, weight gain and physiological parameters in group-housed dairy calves, Applied Animal Behaviour Science (2015). DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2015.09.004

Zhang D.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agriculture science | Zhang D.,Institute of Animal Husbandry | Liu D.,Heilongjiang Academy of Agriculture science | Liu D.,Institute of Animal Husbandry | And 8 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

Ambient temperature is a critical factor that affects biological organisms in many ways. In this study, the authors investigated gene expression changes in Min pig muscle in response to cold stress. Female Min pigs were randomly divided into control and cold-stressed groups. Control group was housed at 10±2°C; the cold-stressed group was housed at -20±3°C for 13 days. The results showed that 34 genes were differentially expressed, of which 7 genes were significantly upregulated and 27 genes were significantly downregulated. Subsequent bioinformatics analyses revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly related to immune response, response to virus, and RNA binding. The bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed genes should be beneficial to further investigations on the underlying mechanisms involved in cold stress-induced damage in the muscle. Source

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