Rajua H.,University of Mysore |
Rajua H.,Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering |
Chandrappa S.,University of Mysore |
Prasanna D.S.,University of Mysore |
And 4 more authors.
Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery | Year: 2011
In search of synthetic chemotherapeutic substances capable of inhibiting, retarding, or reversing the process of multistage carcinogenesis, we synthesised a series of novel 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-3-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazol-5-amine derivatives 9(a-h) by a nucleophilic substitution reaction and characterized by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and elemental analysis. These novel compounds were evaluated for their efficacy in inhibiting VERO normal and MCF-7 breast cancer cells proliferation by trypan blue exclusion assay, MTT assay, [3H] thymidine incorporation assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. Among the series, some compounds exhibited interesting growth inhibitory effects against cell lines. From the Structure-Activity Relationship studies, it has been revealed that, both novel patented compounds and therapeutic protocols of N-terminal pyrazole ring structures play key role in the antiproliferative activity. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Chandrakala G.K.,Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2010
The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglunation test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.
Chandranaik B.M.,Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University |
Chandranaik B.M.,Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals |
Shivashankar B.P.,Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University |
Giridhar P.,Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University |
Nagaraju D.N.,Bandipur Tiger Reserve
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2016
We report the cultural and molecular characterisation of Pasteurella multocida isolates recovered from Asiatic elephants at Bandipur tiger reserve forest in Karnataka state, India. The forest had witnessed consecutive droughts from 2010 to 2012 and sudden heavy monsoon rains in 2013. Twenty-three elephants died during this period of heavy rains between May and July 2013. Postmortem conducted on a fresh elephant carcass revealed hemorrhagic tracheitis, haemorrhages on heart and lesions of acute septicaemia in all other vital organs. In seven elephant carcasses where fresh samples were not available, bone marrow samples of femur bones were aseptically collected. Heart blood and spleen samples collected at postmortem and two out of seven bone marrow samples yielded the growth of P. multocida. The isolates were typed as P. multocida type B. The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates was carried out by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based PCR and sequencing of 1.3 Kbp nucleotides on the 16S rRNA gene of the isolates. The isolates showed highest sequence identity with P. multocida isolates of bovine and caprine origin. This is the first report of molecular study on P. multocida from Asiatic elephants. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Chandrakala G.K.,Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals
Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulatory action of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (MEMO) in an experimental model of immunity. The cellular immunity was evaluated using neutrophil adhesion test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and carbon clearance assay, whereas, humoral immunity was tested by mice lethality test, serum immunoglobulin estimation and indirect haemagglutination assay in animals. Administration of MEMO (250 and 750 mg/kg, po) and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) significantly increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and also prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. They also increased significantly the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglunation test. Moreover, MEMO produced significant increase in adhesion of neutrophils, attenuation of cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia and an increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay. From the above results, it can be concluded that MEMO stimulate both cellular and humoral immune response. However, low dose of MEMO was found to be more effective than the high dose.
PubMed | Institute Of Parasitologie Et Of Pathologie Tropicale Of Strasbourg Ippts, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, The Pirbright Institute and 7 more.
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2016
Culicoides spp. biting midges transmit bluetongue virus (BTV), the aetiological agent of bluetongue (BT), an economically important disease of ruminants. In southern India, hyperendemic outbreaks of BT exert high cost to subsistence farmers in the region, impacting on sheep production. Effective Culicoides spp. monitoring methods coupled with accurate species identification can accelerate responses for minimising BT outbreaks. Here, we assessed the utility of sampling methods and DNA barcoding for detection and identification of Culicoides spp. in southern India, in order to provide an informed basis for future monitoring of their populations in the region.Culicoides spp. collected from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka were used to construct a framework for future morphological identification in surveillance, based on sequence comparison of the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene and achieving quality standards defined by the Barcode of Life initiative. Pairwise catches of Culicoides spp. were compared in diversity and abundance between green (570nm) and ultraviolet (UV) (390nm) light emitting diode (LED) suction traps at a single site in Chennai, Tamil Nadu over 20 nights of sampling in November 2013.DNA barcode sequences of Culicoides spp. were mostly congruent both with existing DNA barcode data from other countries and with morphological identification of major vector species. However, sequence differences symptomatic of cryptic species diversity were present in some groups which require further investigation. While the diversity of species collected by the UV LED Center for Disease Control (CDC) trap did not significantly vary from that collected by the green LED CDC trap, the UV CDC significantly outperformed the green LED CDC trap with regard to the number of Culicoides individuals collected.Morphological identification of the majority of potential vector species of Culicoides spp. samples within southern India appears relatively robust; however, potential cryptic species diversity was present in some groups requiring further investigation. The UV LED CDC trap is recommended for surveillance of Culicoides in southern India.
PubMed | West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals and Indian Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications | Year: 2015
Herein we report rabbit model in vivo bone regeneration of hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HCCHAp) scaffolds without (group I) and with growth factors namely insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (group II) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) (group III). All HCCHAp scaffolds have been characterized for phase purity and morphology before implantation. Calcined marine coral was hydrothermally converted using a mineralizer/catalyst to phase pure HAp retaining original pore structure and geometry. After sintering at 1250C, the HCCHAp found to have ~87% crystallinity, 70-75% porosity and 20.5MPa compressive strength. In vitro growth factor release study at day 28 revealed 77 and 98% release for IGF-1 and BMP-2, respectively. The IGF-1 release was more sustained than BMP-2. In vivo bone healing of different groups was compared using chronological radiology, histological evaluations, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling up to 90days of implantation. In vivo studies showed substantial reduction in radiolucent zone and decreased radiodensity of implants in group II followed by group III and group I. These observations clearly suggest in-growth of osseous tissue, initiation of bone healing and complete union between implants and natural bone in group II implants. A statistical score sheet based on histological observations showed an excellent osseous tissue formation in group II and group III scaffolds and moderate bone regeneration in group I scaffolds.
Pavankumar K.N.,KVAFS University |
Madhusudhan H.S.,Veterinary College |
Chandrashekhara N.,Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014
Antibiotics play a vital role in the treatment of bacterial infections in both humans and animals. As a result antibiotic resistance develops, posing serious health problems in both humans and animals. This has led to concerns about the public health implications of antibiotic use in animal husbandry. To avoid elimination by antibiotic substances, bacteria develop resistance by mutation or by acquisition of genes from other bacteria. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria is a common event and an important factor in microbial evolution. These antibiotic resistant bacteria get into human food chain posing a potential risk. Transmission of resistant gene between different species occurs. Resistance genes can persist in the environment both in their original bacterial hosts and in transferred organisms. Resistance becomes a problem when a bacterium causing a disease withstands antibiotic therapy. Increased resistance to antibiotics may therefore cause clinical problems and may shorten the useful life span of some antibiotics. The present paper highlights their mode of entry into food chain, various biochemical methods by which bacteria develops resistance, possible health problems and measures to control antibacterial resistance.
PubMed | ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals and Indian Council of Agriculture Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary world | Year: 2017
This study was conducted for the isolation and molecular characterization of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) isolated from the nasal and vaginal swabs collected from naturally infected cattle showing clinical symptoms of the respiratory disease.Isolation of BoHV-1 virus performed on clinical samples collected from 65 cattle from five states of India. The BoHV-1 isolates were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for glycoprotein B (gB) genomic region. PCR amplification was performed using previously published gB gene-specific primer pairs. gB PCR amplicons obtained from all isolates were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using software.A total of 12 samples were found positive in cell culture isolation. 11 isolates showed the visible cytopathic effect on Madin-Darby bovine kidney after 72 h. Partial sequence analysis of gB gene of all isolates revealed 99.0-100% homology between them. All isolates showed 99.2-99.8% homology with Cooper stain.BoHV-1.1 is the predominant circulating subtype of BoHV in India, and all isolates have homology with Cooper stain.
Hosamani M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Basagoudanavar S.H.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Tamil Selvan R.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Das V.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
And 4 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2015
Reliable diagnostic tests that are able to distinguish infected from vaccinated animals are a critical component of regional control programs for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the affected countries. Non-structural protein (NSP) serology based on the 3ABC protein has been widely used for this purpose, and several kits are commercially available worldwide. This report presents the development of a 3ABC-antigen-based indirect ELISA, employing a peroxidase-conjugated protein G secondary antibody that can detect antibodies from multiple species. Recombinant 3ABC protein was expressed in insect cells and purified using affinity column chromatography. Using this protein, an indirect ELISA was developed and validated for the detection of NSP antibodies in serum samples collected from animals with different status of FMD. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were found to be 95.8 (95 % CI: 92.8–97.8) and 97.45 % (95 % CI: 94.8–99.0), respectively. The in-house ELISA compared well with the commercially available prioCHECK FMDV NS-FMD kit, with a high agreement between the tests, as determined by the kappa coefficient, which was 0.87. The in-house ELISA showed higher sensitivity for detecting vaccinated and subsequently infected animals, when compared to the reference test. Both of the tests were able to detect NSP antibodies as early as 7–8 days after experimental infection. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.
PubMed | Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2015
We report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bannerghatta biological park (BBP), a national park located in the outskirts of Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India, is bordered by several villages. These villages witnessed massive outbreaks of FMD which spread rapidly to the herbivores at BBP. Post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two Indian gaurs that died with symptoms of FMD. The salient gross findings included extensive vesicular lesions on the tongue, gums, cheeks, upper palate and hooves. Haemorrhagic tracheitis and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the heart were characteristic. The vesicular lesions of oral cavity were positive for O type of FMD virus by sandwich enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The heart blood and spleen samples yielded growth of pure cultures of P. multocida. The isolates were typed as P. multocida type B using KTSP61 and KTT72 primers yielding specific amplicons of 620bp. The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates was carried by sequencing of 1.4-Kbp nucleotides on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the isolates.