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Mariensee, Germany

Jia Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Northwest University, China | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) plays an important role in energy homeostasis by controlling electron transfer and ATP generation. Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy affects mitochondrial (mt) DNA-encoded OXPHOS activity in offspring, yet it is unknown whether epigenetic mechanism is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS genes. In this study, 14 primiparous purebred Meishan sows were fed either standard- (SP, 12% crude protein) or low-protein (LP; 6% crude protein) diets throughout gestation, and the hepatic expression and transcriptional regulation of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS genes were analyzed in newborn piglets. Maternal low protein diet decreased hepatic mtDNA copy number in males, but not in females. LP male piglets had significantly higher hepatic AMP concentration and low energy charge, which was accompanied by enhanced mRNA expression of NADH dehydrogenase subunits 6, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, 2, 3 and cytochrome b, as well as increased cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity. In contrast, LP female piglets showed significantly lower hepatic AMP concentrations and higher energy charge with no alterations in OXPHOS gene expression. Moreover, LP males demonstrated higher glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding to the mtDNA promoter compared with SP males, which was accompanied by lower cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation on mtDNA promoter. Interestingly, opposite changes were seen in females, which showed diminished GR binding and enriched cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation on mtDNA promoter. These results suggest that maternal low protein diet during pregnancy causes sex-dependent epigenetic alterations in mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS gene expression, possibly GR is involved in mtDNA transcription regulation. © 2013 Jia et al. Source


Jia Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Northwest University, China | Li R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) plays an important role in glucose homeostasis because it catalyzes the final steps of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy affects G6PC activity, yet it is unknown whether epigenetic regulations of the G6PC gene are also affected. In this study, we fed primiparous, purebred Meishan sows either standard-protein (SP; 12% crude protein) or low-protein (LP; 6% crude protein) diets throughout gestation and analyzed hepatic G6PC expression in both male and female newborn piglets. The epigenetic regulation of G6PC, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro RNA (miRNA), was determined to reveal potential mechanisms. Male, but not female, LP piglets had a significantly lower serum glucose concentration and greater hepatic G6PC mRNA expression and enzyme activity. Also, in LP males, glucocorticoid receptor binding to the G6PC promoter was lower compared with SP males, which was accompanied by hypomethylation of the G6PC promoter. Modifications in histones also were gender dependent; LP males had less histone H3 and histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation and more histone H3 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation on the G6PC promoter compared with the SP males, whereas LP females had more H3 and greater H3 methylation compared with their SP counterparts. Moreover, two miRNA, ssc-miR-339-5p and ssc-miR-532-3p, targeting the G6PC 3' untranslated region were significantly upregulated by the LP diet only in females. These results suggest that a maternal LP diet during pregnancy causes hepatic activation of G6PC gene expression in male piglets, which possibly contributes to adult-onset hyperglycemia. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Cong R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Northwest University, China | Jia Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2012

To investigate the effect of maternal dietary protein on hepatic cholesterol metabolism in offspring pigs and to detect underlying epigenetic mechanisms, 14 primiparous purebred Meishan sows were fed standard-protein (SP, n=7) or low-protein (LP, 50% of SP, n=7) diets during pregnancy and lactation, respectively. LP piglets showed significantly lower body weight and liver weight at weaning, associated with decreased liver and serum cholesterol content. Hepatic SREBP2, HMGCR and CYP7α. 1 mRNA expressions were all up-regulated in LP piglets, as well as SREBP2 protein content and HMGCR enzyme activity, compared to SP piglets, while the mRNA expression of LDLR, FXR, LXR and CYP27α. 1 was not altered. Hepatic activation of HMGCR gene transcription in LP piglets was associated with promoter hypomethylation, together with decreased histone H3, H3 lysine 9 monomethylation (H3K9me1) and H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and increased H3 acetylation. No CpG islands were predicted in the CYP7α. 1 promoter, and the augmented CYP7α. 1 transcription in LP piglets was associated with decreased H3, H3K9me1 and H3K27me3. No alterations were detected for hepatic expression of microRNAs predicted to target 3'-UTR of HMGCR or CYP7α. 1 gene. These results indicate that maternal low-protein diet during gestation and lactation affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in weaning piglets by modifying the epigenetic regulation of HMGCR and CYP7α. 1 genes, which implicates possible long-term consequences in cholesterol homeostasis later in adult life. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Sirotkin A.V.,Constantine the Philosopher University | Grossmann R.,Institute of Animal Genetics
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -Part A : Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2015

The aim of the present experiment is to examine the role of nutritional status, metabolic hormones and their interrelationships in the control of chicken ovarian ovulatory and secretory activity. For this purpose, we identified the effect of food restriction, administration of leptin, ghrelin 1-18, obestatin and combinations of food restriction with these hormones for 3. days on chicken ovulation (egg laying) rate and ovarian hormone release. The release of progesterone (P), testosterone (T), estradiol (E) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by isolated and cultured ovarian fragments was determined by EIA. It was observed that food restriction significantly reduced the egg-laying rate, T, E and AVT release and promoted P output by ovarian fragments. Leptin, administrated to ad libitum-fed chickens, did not change these parameters besides promoting E release. Nevertheless, administration of leptin was able to prevent the effect of food restriction on ovulation, T and E (but not P or AVT) release. Ghrelin 1-18 administration to ad libitum-fed birds did not affect the measured parameters besides a reduction in P release. Ghrelin 1-18 administration prevented the food restriction-induced decrease in ovarian T, E and AVT, but it did not change P output or egg laying. Obestatin administrated to control chicken promoted their ovarian P, E and inhibited ovarian AVT release but did not affect egg laying. It was able to promote the effect of food restriction on P, T and AVT, but not E release or egg laying. Our results (1) confirm an inhibitory effect of food restriction on chicken ovulation rate; (2) shows that food restriction-induced reduction in egg laying is associated with a decrease in ovarian T, E and AVT and an increase in ovarian P release; (3) confirm the involvement of metabolic hormones leptin, ghrelin and obestatin in the control of chicken ovarian hormones output; and (4) the ability of metabolic hormones to mimic/antagonize or prevent/promote the effects of food restriction on both egg laying and ovarian hormones demonstrates that nutritional status can influence ovarian ovulatory and endocrine functions via changes in metabolic hormones. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Ahmed A.A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ma W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ni Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2013

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are vital for embryonic development and their bioactivity is regulated by the intracellular metabolism involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs) and 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20-HSD). Here we sought to reveal the differences in egg deposition of corticosterone and embryonic expression of corticosterone metabolic enzymes between slow and fast growing broiler chickens (Gallus gallus). Eggs of fast-growing breed contained significantly higher (P<. 0.05) corticosterone in the yolk and albumen, compared with that of a slow-growing breed. 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 were expressed in relatively higher abundance in the liver, kidney and intestine, following similar tissue-specific ontogenic patterns. In the liver, expression of both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 was upregulated (P<. 0.05) towards hatching, yet 20-HSD displayed distinct pattern showing a significant decrease (P<. 0.05) on posthatch day 1 (D1). Hepatic mRNA expression of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 was significantly higher in fast-growing chicken embryos at all the embryonic stages investigated and so was the hepatic protein content on embryonic day of 14 (E14) for 11β-HSD1 and on E14 and D1 for 11β-HSD2. 20-HSD mRNA was higher in fast-growing chicken embryos only on E14. Our data provide the first evidence that egg deposition of corticosterone, as well as the hepatic expression of glucocorticoid metabolic enzymes, differs between fast-growing and slow-growing chickens, which may account, to some extent, for the breed disparities in embryonic development. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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