Institute of Animal Genetics

Mariensee, Germany

Institute of Animal Genetics

Mariensee, Germany
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Sirotkin A.V.,Constantine the Philosopher University | Grossmann R.,Institute of Animal Genetics
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -Part A : Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2015

The aim of the present experiment is to examine the role of nutritional status, metabolic hormones and their interrelationships in the control of chicken ovarian ovulatory and secretory activity. For this purpose, we identified the effect of food restriction, administration of leptin, ghrelin 1-18, obestatin and combinations of food restriction with these hormones for 3. days on chicken ovulation (egg laying) rate and ovarian hormone release. The release of progesterone (P), testosterone (T), estradiol (E) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by isolated and cultured ovarian fragments was determined by EIA. It was observed that food restriction significantly reduced the egg-laying rate, T, E and AVT release and promoted P output by ovarian fragments. Leptin, administrated to ad libitum-fed chickens, did not change these parameters besides promoting E release. Nevertheless, administration of leptin was able to prevent the effect of food restriction on ovulation, T and E (but not P or AVT) release. Ghrelin 1-18 administration to ad libitum-fed birds did not affect the measured parameters besides a reduction in P release. Ghrelin 1-18 administration prevented the food restriction-induced decrease in ovarian T, E and AVT, but it did not change P output or egg laying. Obestatin administrated to control chicken promoted their ovarian P, E and inhibited ovarian AVT release but did not affect egg laying. It was able to promote the effect of food restriction on P, T and AVT, but not E release or egg laying. Our results (1) confirm an inhibitory effect of food restriction on chicken ovulation rate; (2) shows that food restriction-induced reduction in egg laying is associated with a decrease in ovarian T, E and AVT and an increase in ovarian P release; (3) confirm the involvement of metabolic hormones leptin, ghrelin and obestatin in the control of chicken ovarian hormones output; and (4) the ability of metabolic hormones to mimic/antagonize or prevent/promote the effects of food restriction on both egg laying and ovarian hormones demonstrates that nutritional status can influence ovarian ovulatory and endocrine functions via changes in metabolic hormones. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Sirotkin A.V.,Constantine the Philosopher University | Pavlova S.,Constantine the Philosopher University | Tena-Sempere M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Grossmann R.,Institute of Animal Genetics | And 3 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2013

The purpose of the present study was to identify the role of age, nutritional state and some metabolic hormones in control of avian hypothalamic and ovarian ghrelin/ghrelin receptor system. We examined the effect of food restriction, administration of ghrelin 1-18, ghrelin antagonistic analogue (D-Lys-3)-GHRP-6, obestatin and combinations of them on the expression of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) in hypothalamus and ovary of old (23. months of age) and young (7. months of age) chickens. Expression of mRNAs for ghrelin and GHS-R1a in both hypothalamus and largest ovarian follicle was measured by RT-PCR. It was observed that food restriction could promote the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a in hypothalamus and ovary of the old chickens, but in the young chickens it reduced expression of ghrelin and did not affect expression of GHS-R1a in the ovary. Administration of ghrelin 1-18 did not affect hypothalamic or ovarian ghrelin mRNA, but significantly increased the expression of GHS-R1a in hypothalamus, but not in ovary. (D-Lys-3)-GHRP-6, significantly stimulated accumulation of ghrelin, but not GHS-R1a mRNA in hypothalamus or ghrelin or GHS-R1a in the ovary. Ghrelin 1-18 and (D-Lys-3)-GHRP-6, when given together, were able either to prevent or to induce effect of these hormones. Obestatin administration increased expression of ghrelin gene in the hypothalamus, but not expression of hypothalamic GHS-R1a, ovarian ghrelin and GHS-R1a. Furthermore, obestatin was able to modify effect of both ghrelin and fasting on hypothalamic and ovarian mRNA for ghrelin GHS-R1a. Our results (1) confirm the existence of ghrelin and its functional receptors GHS-R1a in the chicken hypothalamus and ovary (2) confirm the age-dependent control of ovarian ghrelin by feeding, (3) demonstrate, that nutritional status can influence the expression of both ghrelin and GHS-R1a in hypothalamus and in the ovary (3) demonstrates for the first time, that ghrelin can promote generation of its functional receptor in the hypothalamus, but not in the ovary, (4) show that ghrelin1-18 and (D-Lys-3)-GHRP-6 could not only be antagonists in the action on chicken hypothalamus and ovaries, but also independent regulators and even agonists, and (5) provide first evidence for action of obestatin on hypothalamic ghrelin and on the response of hypothalamic and ovarian ghrelin/GHS-R1a system to food restriction. These data indicate the involvement of both hypothalamic and ovarian ghrelin/GHS-R1 systems in mediating the effects of nutritional status, ghrelin and obestatin on reproductive processes. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Rose M.K.,Institute of Animal Genetics | Rose M.K.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Parvizi N.,Institute of Animal Genetics
Regulatory Peptides | Year: 2011

Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to be produced and secreted by priphereal immune cells. Therefore, we studied the release of GH by lymphocytes, during various stages of pregnancy and estrous cycle in the cow. The effect of leptin on the lymphocytic GH release was also investigated. Estradiol-17< and progesterone concentrations in plasma were measured in all animals to confirm their reproductive status. Growth hormone levels measured in cell cultures during early pregnancy (days 60-80) and during the luteal phase were greater (p < 0.01) than levels during follicular phase or mid (days 100-160) and late (days 240-245) pregnancy. Leptin treatment stimulated (p < 0.05) lymphocytic GH release during mid-pregnancy when the basal GH levels were low. Changes in lymphocytic GH release and elevation of lymphocytic GH secretion by leptin during pregnancy and the absence of such effects in estrous cycle may indicate that leptin modulation of lymphocytic GH plays a role in the regulation of immune response during pregnancy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Horin P.,Institute of Animal Genetics | Sabakova K.,Institute of Animal Genetics | Futas J.,Institute of Animal Genetics | Vychodilova L.,Institute of Animal Genetics | Necesankova M.,Institute of Animal Genetics
International Journal of Immunogenetics | Year: 2010

In previous work, we found significant associations of horse polymorphic microsatellite and immunity-related (IR) gene markers with Rhodococcus equi infection of foals. Here, a statistically significant association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the interleukin 7 receptor-encoding gene (IL7R) with high R. equi burden in transtracheal aspirates was found (Fisher's F = 0.043, odds ratio: 8.00, 95% confidence interval: 1.127-56.795). Further positional and?or functional candidate genes investigated TLR2, IL13, IL17A, IL28R, TACE?ADAM 17 and GBP1, were not associated with infection in this study. SNPs analysed were found by sequencing and appropriate restriction fragment length polymorphism markers were developed. Their associations with R. equi infection were tested by genotyping thoroughbred foals from the original study. The association was confirmed by analysing genotypes composed with genes previously reported to be associated with R. equi infection in the same group. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Jia Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Northwest University, China | Li R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) plays an important role in glucose homeostasis because it catalyzes the final steps of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy affects G6PC activity, yet it is unknown whether epigenetic regulations of the G6PC gene are also affected. In this study, we fed primiparous, purebred Meishan sows either standard-protein (SP; 12% crude protein) or low-protein (LP; 6% crude protein) diets throughout gestation and analyzed hepatic G6PC expression in both male and female newborn piglets. The epigenetic regulation of G6PC, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro RNA (miRNA), was determined to reveal potential mechanisms. Male, but not female, LP piglets had a significantly lower serum glucose concentration and greater hepatic G6PC mRNA expression and enzyme activity. Also, in LP males, glucocorticoid receptor binding to the G6PC promoter was lower compared with SP males, which was accompanied by hypomethylation of the G6PC promoter. Modifications in histones also were gender dependent; LP males had less histone H3 and histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation and more histone H3 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation on the G6PC promoter compared with the SP males, whereas LP females had more H3 and greater H3 methylation compared with their SP counterparts. Moreover, two miRNA, ssc-miR-339-5p and ssc-miR-532-3p, targeting the G6PC 3' untranslated region were significantly upregulated by the LP diet only in females. These results suggest that a maternal LP diet during pregnancy causes hepatic activation of G6PC gene expression in male piglets, which possibly contributes to adult-onset hyperglycemia. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.


Jia Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Northwest University, China | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) plays an important role in energy homeostasis by controlling electron transfer and ATP generation. Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy affects mitochondrial (mt) DNA-encoded OXPHOS activity in offspring, yet it is unknown whether epigenetic mechanism is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS genes. In this study, 14 primiparous purebred Meishan sows were fed either standard- (SP, 12% crude protein) or low-protein (LP; 6% crude protein) diets throughout gestation, and the hepatic expression and transcriptional regulation of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS genes were analyzed in newborn piglets. Maternal low protein diet decreased hepatic mtDNA copy number in males, but not in females. LP male piglets had significantly higher hepatic AMP concentration and low energy charge, which was accompanied by enhanced mRNA expression of NADH dehydrogenase subunits 6, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, 2, 3 and cytochrome b, as well as increased cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity. In contrast, LP female piglets showed significantly lower hepatic AMP concentrations and higher energy charge with no alterations in OXPHOS gene expression. Moreover, LP males demonstrated higher glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding to the mtDNA promoter compared with SP males, which was accompanied by lower cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation on mtDNA promoter. Interestingly, opposite changes were seen in females, which showed diminished GR binding and enriched cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation on mtDNA promoter. These results suggest that maternal low protein diet during pregnancy causes sex-dependent epigenetic alterations in mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS gene expression, possibly GR is involved in mtDNA transcription regulation. © 2013 Jia et al.


Cong R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Cong R.,Northwest University, China | Jia Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li R.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2012

To investigate the effect of maternal dietary protein on hepatic cholesterol metabolism in offspring pigs and to detect underlying epigenetic mechanisms, 14 primiparous purebred Meishan sows were fed standard-protein (SP, n=7) or low-protein (LP, 50% of SP, n=7) diets during pregnancy and lactation, respectively. LP piglets showed significantly lower body weight and liver weight at weaning, associated with decreased liver and serum cholesterol content. Hepatic SREBP2, HMGCR and CYP7α. 1 mRNA expressions were all up-regulated in LP piglets, as well as SREBP2 protein content and HMGCR enzyme activity, compared to SP piglets, while the mRNA expression of LDLR, FXR, LXR and CYP27α. 1 was not altered. Hepatic activation of HMGCR gene transcription in LP piglets was associated with promoter hypomethylation, together with decreased histone H3, H3 lysine 9 monomethylation (H3K9me1) and H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and increased H3 acetylation. No CpG islands were predicted in the CYP7α. 1 promoter, and the augmented CYP7α. 1 transcription in LP piglets was associated with decreased H3, H3K9me1 and H3K27me3. No alterations were detected for hepatic expression of microRNAs predicted to target 3'-UTR of HMGCR or CYP7α. 1 gene. These results indicate that maternal low-protein diet during gestation and lactation affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in weaning piglets by modifying the epigenetic regulation of HMGCR and CYP7α. 1 genes, which implicates possible long-term consequences in cholesterol homeostasis later in adult life. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Ahmed A.A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ma W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ni Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2013

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are vital for embryonic development and their bioactivity is regulated by the intracellular metabolism involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs) and 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20-HSD). Here we sought to reveal the differences in egg deposition of corticosterone and embryonic expression of corticosterone metabolic enzymes between slow and fast growing broiler chickens (Gallus gallus). Eggs of fast-growing breed contained significantly higher (P<. 0.05) corticosterone in the yolk and albumen, compared with that of a slow-growing breed. 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 were expressed in relatively higher abundance in the liver, kidney and intestine, following similar tissue-specific ontogenic patterns. In the liver, expression of both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 was upregulated (P<. 0.05) towards hatching, yet 20-HSD displayed distinct pattern showing a significant decrease (P<. 0.05) on posthatch day 1 (D1). Hepatic mRNA expression of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 was significantly higher in fast-growing chicken embryos at all the embryonic stages investigated and so was the hepatic protein content on embryonic day of 14 (E14) for 11β-HSD1 and on E14 and D1 for 11β-HSD2. 20-HSD mRNA was higher in fast-growing chicken embryos only on E14. Our data provide the first evidence that egg deposition of corticosterone, as well as the hepatic expression of glucocorticoid metabolic enzymes, differs between fast-growing and slow-growing chickens, which may account, to some extent, for the breed disparities in embryonic development. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Wang S.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ni Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Fu W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2013

Tonic immobility (TI) test is commonly used to assess fear. Animals showing different TI durations demonstrate distinct behavior and biochemical responses to stress. However, less is known about how TI phenotype affects growth and welfare of domestic fowl. In this study, broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) were classified into short and long TI duration (STI and LTI) phenotypes and treated chronically with vehicle (CON) or corticosterone (CORT). STI broilers demonstrated significantly higher growth rate with higher breast muscle yield (P<0.05) and liver weight relative to BW tended to be lower (P=0.053), which was accompanied by higher serum concentration of CORT (P<0.05) and uric acid (P<0.01), but lower serum level of T4 (P=0.01). CORT severely reduced body weight, as well as the relative weight of muscle, bursa of Fabricius and spleen (P<0.001), but relative liver weight was increased (P<0.001). CORT-treated chickens had reduced serum CORT, elevated heterophile/lymphocyte ratio, and increased serum levels of total and free T3. STI broilers displayed more preening behavior (P<0.05), yet CORT elicited more walking behavior (P<0.05). No difference was observed in the welfare assessment scores between STI and LTI phenotypes under basal situation, while LTI chickens showed significantly increased incidence of pad dermatitis compared to STI under CORT exposure. The results suggest that STI broilers demonstrate better growth performance and higher adaptability to stress compared to LTI chickens. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Phogat J.B.,Institute of Animal Genetics | Parvizi N.,Institute of Animal Genetics
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

The effects of different acute stressors on LH secretion and their possible interactions with opioidergic and catecholaminergic-modulation of LH secretion were investigated using gonadectomized male miniature pigs. Nose-snare (NS) or high intensity cracker blast (CB) or ACTH (1. iu/kg BW) was administered 3. h after start of blood sampling. Animals also received either naloxone (Nal; 1. mg/kg BW) or propranolol-a beta-adrenergic antagonist (Pro; 0.5. mg/kg BW) or saline. Naloxone and propranolol were given 30 (Nal) or 15. min (Pro), before the application of stressor or ACTH. Blood samples were collected every 10. min for 6h. Neither the acute stress of NS nor CB altered the LH secretion. ACTH increased the mean plasma LH concentrations and the LH pulse amplitude (p≤ 0.01) but not the pulse frequency. Naloxone elevated the mean LH values in controls, but had no effects on LH pulse frequency or pulse amplitude. Naloxone-induced increase in LH concentrations was attenuated by NS and ACTH. There was an increase in mean plasma LH values (p≤ 0.05), LH pulse amplitude (p≤ 0.01) and pulse frequency (p≤ 0.05) after treatment with propranolol. Nose-snare caused a reduction in the propranolol-induced increase of LH pulse frequency and pulse amplitude. In conclusion, although, the transient painful stress of NS does not affect the LH values, it alters the opioidergic and catecholaminergic-modulation of LH secretion. The interference with opioid system is possibly mediated by ACTH. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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