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Bag A.,Institute of Allied Health Paramedical Services | Jyala N.S.,Government Medical College | Bag N.,Sikkim University
Indian Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Genetic influences on cancer development have been extensively investigated during the last decade following publication of human genome sequence. The present review summarizes case-control studies on genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk in Indians. It is observed that the most commonly studied genes in the Indian population included members of phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Other than these genes, genetic polymorphisms for cell cycle and apoptosis-related factors, DNA repair enzymes, immune response elements, growth factors, folate metabolizing enzymes, vitamin/hormone receptors, etc., were investigated. Several studies also evidenced a stronger risk for combined genotypes rather than a single polymorphism. Gene-environment interaction was also found to be a determining factor for cancer development in some experiments. Data for single polymorphism and single cancer type, however, was insufficient to validate an association. It appears that much more experiments involving larger sample size, cross-tabulating genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors are required in order to identify genetic markers for different cancers in Indian populations. Source


Bag A.,Institute of Allied Health Paramedical Services | Bag N.,Sikkim University | Jeena L.M.,Institute of Allied Health Paramedical Services | Jyala N.S.,Goverment Medical College
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014

Null genetic polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) and -463 G>A promoter polymorphism of myeloperoxidase (MPO) were studied for association with lung cancer. Materials and Methods: In a case- control study 26 lung cancer patients and 33 healthy individuals from hilly Kumaun region of northern India were investigated. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. GSTT1 null polymorphism was detected by duplex PCR, and MPO polymorphism was detected by performing PCR-RFLP. Results: An increased but statistically non- significant risk for lung cancer was found for GSTT1 null genotype. No association for MPO -463G>A genotype was evident. Conclusion: Further study with large sample size may reveal such association in this population. © Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine. Source


Bag A.,Institute of Allied Health Paramedical Services | Pant N.K.,Swami Ram Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Jeena L.M.,Institute of Allied Health Paramedical Services | Bag N.,Sikkim University | Jyala N.S.,Government Medical College
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Carboplatin, a second generation platinum drug, is widely used to treat different types of cancers. However, myelosuppression remains a major consideration in its use. Genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in drug disposition can influence therapeutic outcome. The homozygous null deletion of phase II metabolic gene GSTT1 that abolishes its xenobiotic- detoxifying ability may be associated with carboplatin toxicity. Further, since carboplatin generates oxidative stress, polymorphisms of oxidative stress genes that regulate the cellular level of free radicals may have important roles in generating drug- related adverse effects. We here investigated the null polymorphism of GSTT1, and the -463G>A promoter polymorphism of oxidative stress gene myeloperoxidase (MPO) for carboplatin toxicity in a population of northern India. Cancer patients who were treated with carboplatin, and developed toxicity was considered. The study group comprised of 10 patients who developed therapy- related adverse effects. Peripheral blood was taken from patients for DNA isolation. GSTT1 null genotype was determined by conducting duplex PCR and MPO-463 G>A was determined by PCR followed by RFLP. Hematologic toxicity was experienced by 5 patients, 2 of them had grade 3 and 4 toxicity and 3 others had grade 2 toxicity. They also had gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Remaining 5 individuals developed GI toxicity but no hematological toxicity. While GG homozygous of MPO was present in majority of patients having hematologic toxicity (in 4 out of 5 individuals), one A allele (AG genotype) was present in 4 patients who did not have any hematological toxicity. Thus variant A allele of MPO -463G>A may be related to lower hematological toxicity. These preliminary data, however, are required to be confirmed in larger studies along with other relevant polymorphisms. Source


Bag A.,Institute of Allied Health Paramedical Services | Rawat S.,Institute of Allied Health Paramedical Services | Pant N.K.,Swami Ram Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Jyala N.S.,Government Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

A survey was conducted to determine the cancer profile in Nainital and adjoining districts of Uttarakhand. Epidemiological information was collected from the records of patients with confirmed cancer cases. A total of 354 cases were studied for the year 2010. Lung cancer was found to be leading cancer type (17.23%) overall. Breast cancer was most prevalent in females (22.29%) followed by cervical (14.86%) and ovarian cancers (13.51%). Men were mainly suffering from tobacco- and alcohol-related cancers, e.g., lungs (26.21%), larynx (11.16%), oropharynx (9.7%), oral cavity (6.79%), and esophagus (6.79%). Cancers of unknown primary site (1.41%) were also detected. Source


Bag A.,Institute of Allied Health Paramedical Services | Upadhyay S.,Blood Bank | Jeena L.M.,Institute of Allied Health Paramedical Services | Pundir P.,Graphic Era University | Jyala N.S.,Government Medical College
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a multigene family of multifunctional phase II metabolic enzymes. GSTT1, an important member of this group has a wide range of substrates including carcinogens. Total homozygous deletion or null genotype resulting in total lack of enzyme activity exists in populations for this enzyme. Since the null genotype may contribute to lower detoxification of carcinogens, this genotype is expected to increase cancer risk. The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype is known to vary significantly among populations. However, little is known about its distribution in the hilly Kumaun region of northern India. Therefore, in this study, we determined the prevalence of the GSTT1 null polymorphism in the Kumaun popilation by conducting duplex PCR in 365 voluntary healthy individuals. The GSTT1 null genotype was detected in 18.4% of the individuals. Since GSTs play significant role in xenobiotic metabolism, the present data on GSTT1 genotype distribution should contribute in understanding genetic association with cancer risk in this understudied population. Source

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