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Raza A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Bodner G.,Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding | Moghaddam A.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Ardakani M.R.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2014

Conservation of water using mulches is a viable option under semiarid conditions for enhancing water use efficiency. Effect of mulches varies among years and with the amount and timing of mulching. Lucerne is a key crop for organic farming systems under semiarid conditions in Austria. Effect of mulching with lucerne has not been thoroughly investigated. Field experiments were conducted to assess the effect of lucerne utilization system (nonmulch versus mulch) on its shoot and root dry matter yield, biological nitrogen fixation and water use efficiency. Experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with four replicates at the experimental farm of University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria, during 2007-2008. Mulching was effective in lowering soil temperature by 1-6°C in the top 5 cm of soil. Utilization systems did not significantly affect the other studied parameters (P < 0.05). Lucerne shoot and root dry matter yield, biological nitrogen fixation, and water use efficiency were greater in 2008 than in 2007. Effect of lucerne utilization systems on soil properties needs to be investigated over long-term studies to verify results of this 2-year study. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Huang X.-Y.,Guizhou Normal University | Zeller F.J.,Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding | Huang K.-F.,Guizhou Normal University | Shi T.-X.,Guizhou Normal University | Chen Q.-F.,Guizhou Normal University
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) contains protein of high nutritional value, polyphenols, vitamins and minerals. It is one of the most important minor crops in China and has a great potential as a health and functional food. However, information on the elemental mineral composition of its seeds remains limited. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, K, and Mg in seeds of 123 tartary buckwheat accessions from the same cultivation were studied by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results revealed that the average concentrations of Cu (x1), Zn (x2), Fe (x3), K (x4), and Mg (x5) elements in the accessions are 19.49 (with a range of 5.74-36.01 mg/kg), 27.41 (8.44-66.63 mg/kg), 656.24 (21.8-3,990 mg/kg), 3,639.23 (1,737-5,831 mg/kg), and 1,523.89 mg/kg (729-3,104 mg/kg) respectively. Among them, Fe concentration has the highest coefficient of variation (114.7 %). The results also revealed five significant positive correlations among Cu, Zn, Fe, K, and Mg concentrations. Therefore, distinct genotypes with high concentration of mineral elements should be effective for the development of special buckwheat varieties and improvement of its food nutritional quality. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Liu N.,Guizhou Normal University | Zeller F.J.,Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding | Chen Q.-F.,Guizhou Normal University
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

The Fagopyrum cymosum complex is a group of wild perennial buckwheats which includes the diploid species F. megaspartanium Q. F. Chen and F. pilus Q. F. Chen as well as the allotetraploid species F. cymosum (Trev.) Meisn. The flavonoid content in leaves and inflorescences of the accessions of the F. cymosum complex native to Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Hunan, Hubei, and Tibet has been studied by means of the spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that there are significant differences of flavonoid content among different species, different accessions and different plants. The average flavonoid content of leaves of F. megaspartanium is higher than that of F. pilus and of F. cymosum. The average flavonoid content of inflorescences of F. megaspartanium is higher than that of F. pilus. The results also showed that the flavonoid content in inflorescences was significantly higher than that in leaves, and that they have positive relationships to each other. There is a significant difference of rutin content between leaves and inflorescences, but there is no significant relationship to each other. There is also no significant relationship between leaf rutin contents and leaf flavonoid contents, but significant positive relationship between inflorescence rutin contents and inflorescence flavonoid contents. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Engert N.,Justus Liebig University | John A.,Justus Liebig University | Henning W.,Justus Liebig University | Honermeier B.,Justus Liebig University | Honermeier B.,Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality | Year: 2011

The study was conducted to analyze the effects of sprouting on content and composition of phenolic acids (PA) and antioxidative capacity by the Folin-Ciocalteu (total phenolic content (TPC)) and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay depending on nitrogen application and cultivar. Three wheat cultivars (cv. Tommi, cv. Privileg and cv. Estevan) were treated with two different nitrogen (N) levels (N, without N and N 2 with 150 kg N/ha). Three fractions of the grinded wheat caryopses (free, free-insoluble and bound phenolic acids) were extracted. Mean values for total phenolic acids (TPA) ranged between 498.1 and 1726.2 μg GAE/g with significant differences for the cultivars in not sprouted samples. Nitrogen fertilization showed significant differences with lower TPA contents for not fertilized grain. Even the interaction cultivar x nitrogen was significant for not sprouted grain. The statistical analysis of sprouting time did not show effects on TPA values after 24 h and 48 h of sprouting. In the present study no significant influence of cultivar or nitrogen application was identified for TPC and ORAC values. In contrary to that, the effects of sprouting time on the antioxidative capacity by Folin-Ciocalteu and ORAC were significant. After 48 h of sprouting the values of TPC (2575.6 μg GAE/g) and ORAC (32.6 μmol TFVg) were significantly higher than for not sprouted wheat samples (TPC: 2054.8 μg GAE/g, ORAC: 28.2 μmol TE/g). The longer the sprouting time was, the higher the antioxidative capacity of free phenolic acids, indicating that more free phenolic acids were released and other phytochemicals might have been present after sprouting. Since there are only little information about the effect of sprouting time on phenolic acids and antioxidative capacity in dependence on nitrogen application further studies need to be conducted.


Engert N.,Justus Liebig University | Honermeier B.,Justus Liebig University | Honermeier B.,Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality | Year: 2011

The matter of this study was to determine the phenolic acid profile of different ancient wheat, furthermore, to analyze the total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the antioxidative capacity with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay. The concentration and composition of free, conjugated, and insoluble bound phenolic acids were analyzed in 20 accessions of wheat (Triticum sp.), including 16 ancient wheat and 4 bread wheat samples grown in Germany. Six phenolic acids were analyzed by HPLC, and ferulic acid (FA) was identified to be the abundant phenolic acid. The content of phenolic acids in total was comparable to bread wheat, ranging between 141.0 and 542.0 μg GAE/g (gallic acid equivalent/g) whole wheat flour. In the current study no significant distinction between the analyzed species could be observed. There was no significant impact by the Triticum species, neither on the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu nor on the antioxidative capacity by ORAC. Correlation analysis between ORAC values and total phenolic acids demonstrated a positive correlation (r=0.469, p=0.05). Phenolic acids, TPC and ORAC values of the analyzed ancient wheat samples were comparable to bread wheat.


PubMed | Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

C-banding patterns of T. ovatum (Ae. ovata) and four T. aestivum cv Poros-T. ovatum chromosome addition lines are presented, and the added chromosomes of T. ovatum have been identified. Furthermore, nucleolar activity and powdery mildew resistance were analyzed in the Poros-ovatum addition lines and compared to that of T. ovatum and T. aestivum cv Poros. The addition lines II, III and IV and Poros were highly susceptible to powdery mildew isolates nos. 8 and 9, whereas the addition lines VI1 and VI2 showed high resistance. Even for an Ml-k virulent isolate, these two lines were highly resistant. By combining the cytological results and those of the powdery mildew analysis, the added chromosomes of T. ovatum can be excluded from responsibility for the high powdery mildew resistance of the addition lines VI1 and VI2. The same is true for a modified chromosome 6B, which is present in the Poros-ovataum addition lines II, III and VI. The high variation in C-banding pattern observed in the A-, B- and D-genome complement of the addition lines is believed to be the result of crossing different lines of T. aestivum instead of Poros alone. Thus, we cannot trace the powdery mildew resistance back to a specific chromosome.


PubMed | Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Progenies of a tetraploid 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation line, CV 256, selected from the cross Cando x Veery, were analyzed by means of Giemsa C-banding. CV 256 is cytologically stable for the presence of the 1BL/1RS translocation but still segregating for A- and B-genome chromosomes of Cando and Veery. In CV 256, nucleolar activity of the 1RS NOR locus is suppressed, as judged by the absence of a secondary constriction in that rye segment and the capability of organizing nucleoli. PAGE analysis of prolamins confirmed the presence of two 1RS secalins in all single seeds analyzed. SDS-PAGE analysis of reduced glutenins of single seeds indicated that some seeds contained the Cando Glu-B1 locus (subunits 6+8), some contained the Veery Glu-B1 locus (subunits 7+9) while others contained all four subunits, indicating that the material was heterozygous. Pm8 resistance is expressed in the tetraploid 1BL/1RS translocation line based on the reactions of six well-defined powdery mildew isolates. However, Pm8 resistance is not expressed in the hexaploid wheat cultivars Olymp, Heinrich and Florida, which also contain the 1BL/1RS translocation. Obviously, the existence of the 1BL/1RS translocation is not a proof for the expression of the associated genes. PAGE results did not show a clear linkage between powdery mildew resistance and the presence of 1RS secalins.

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