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Collado M.C.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Collado M.C.,University of Turku | Rautava S.,University of Turku | Isolauri E.,University of Turku | Salminen S.,University of Turku
Pediatric Research | Year: 2015

Modern civilization is faced with a progressive increase in immune-mediated or inflammatory health problems such as allergic disease, autoimmune disorders, and obesity. An extended version of the hygiene hypothesis has been introduced to emphasize the intimate interrelationship among diet, the immune system, microbiome, and origins of human disease: the modern infant, particularly when delivered by cesarean section and without the recommended exclusive breastfeeding, may lack sufficient stimulation of the mucosal immune system to generate a tolerogenic immune milieu and instead be prone to develop chronic inflammatory conditions. These deviations may take the form of allergic or autoimmune disease, or predispose the child to higher weight gain and obesity. Moreover, evidence supports the role of first microbial contacts in promoting and maintaining a balanced immune response in early life and recent findings suggest that microbial contact begins prior to birth and is shaped by the maternal microbiota. Maternal microbiota may prove to be a safe and effective target for interventions decreasing the risk of allergic and noncommunicable diseases in future generations. These results support the hypothesis that targeting early interaction with microbes might offer an applicable strategy to prevent disease. Copyright © 2015 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.

Matos M.E.,Central University of Venezuela | Rosell C.M.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

In the last decade the development of gluten-free foodstuffs has attracted great attention as a result of better diagnoses of coeliac disease and a greater knowledge of the relationship between gluten-free products and health. The increasing interest has prompted extensive research into the development of gluten-free foodstuffs that resemble gluten-containing foods. This review aims to provide some insights on dough functionality and process conditions regarding bread quality and to point out recent research dealing with the nutritional composition of those products. Gluten-free dough results from the combination of different ingredients, additives, and the processing aids required for building up network structures responsible for bread quality. Some relationships between dough rheology and bread characteristics were established to identify possible predictor parameters. Regarding bread-making processes, the impact of mixing, dough treatment and baking is stated. Nutritional quality is an important asset when developing gluten-free breads, and different strategies for improving it are reviewed. Gluten-free bread quality is dependent on ingredients and additives combination, but also processing can provide a way to improve bread quality. Nutritive value of the gluten-free breads must be always in mind when setting up recipes, for obtaining nutritionally balanced bread with adequate glycaemic index. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

Matos M.E.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Matos M.E.,Central University of Venezuela | Sanz T.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Rosell C.M.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014

The incorporation of proteins has been long established in the bakery industry to obtain enriched products, but they also take active part on the making process of sweet baked goods. This study was focused on assessing the role of proteins on the rheology and quality of wheat free muffins by using rice flour. Six rice based formulations were used: one without added protein (No-Protein) and five with different protein sources: soy protein isolate (SPI), pea protein isolate (PPI), egg white protein (EWP), casein (C), and for comparing purposes vital wheat gluten (VWG) was included. Proteins effects were established by evaluating the rheological behaviour of batters measuring the storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G'), and the technological characteristics of the muffins obtained (specific volume, colour, and texture). The addition of SPI, PPI and C significantly (P<0.05) increased G', but this was not modified in batters containing EWP. Casein and EWP increased the specific volume of the muffins. SPI did not have effect on hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience of the muffin, while PPI containing muffins were softer and springier. The overall results indicated that both the rheological properties of the batters and the technological characteristics of the muffin are dominated by the presence of the type of protein used in the formulations. Therefore the source of protein included in the formulation is fundamental to ensure the proper texture and other technological properties of these products. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gularte M.A.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Gularte M.A.,Federal University of Pelotas | Rosell C.M.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

Hydrocolloids are largely used in food processing because of their functional properties, but scarce information is available about the direct impact of different hydrocolloids on the starch digestibility. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different hydrocolloids on the digestibility of corn and potato starch and to establish the possible relationship between physicochemical and in vitro hydrolysis of starch. Hydrocolloids significantly affected the in vitro hydrolysis of starch changing the pattern of the starch fractions favoring the starch hydrolysis and increasing the rapid digestible starch fraction. The effect of hydrocolloids on the starch hydrolysis was greatly dependent on the starch origin. Guar gum was the unique hydrocolloid that combined with potato starch decreases the enzymatic hydrolysis and glycemic index of this starch. Correlations were observed between hydration, pasting and starch digestibility in corn and potato starch. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dura A.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Blaszczak W.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Rosell C.M.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

Porous starch is attracting very much attention for its absorption and shielding ability in many food applications. The effect of two different enzymes, fungal α-amylase (AM) or amyloglucosidase (AMG), on corn starch at sub-gelatinization temperature was studied as an alternative to obtain porous starch. Biochemical features, thermal and structural analyses of treated starches were studied. Microscopic analysis of the granules confirmed the enzymatic modification of the starches obtaining porous structures with more agglomerates in the case of AMG treated starches. Several changes in thermal properties and hydrolysis kinetics were observed in enzymatically modified starches. Hydration properties were significantly affected by enzymatic modification being greater influenced by AMG activity, and the opposite trend was observed in the pasting properties. Overall, results showed that enzymatic modification at sub-gelatinization temperatures really offer an attractive alternative for obtaining porous starch granules to be used in a variety of foods applications. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Altamirano-Fortoul R.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Rosell C.M.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Quality of several bread specialties from frozen partially baked breads was assessed to define main quality features. Loss of crust freshness shortly after baking was also determined. Quality parameters that characterize bread crust and crumb were determined by instrumental methods in nine different (regarding to formulation and bake off duration) bread types obtained from frozen partially baked breads. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among bread specialties. Quality parameters that enable the differentiation of wheat bread types were crust mechanical properties together with specific volume, crumb hardness and structure. Crust flaking barely represented a problem in the studied types of bread. Crust mechanical properties were rapidly lost during the first 4 h after baking and the rate of the process was greatly dependent on the bread type. The force to promote crust fracture underwent increase up to 6 h after baking and those changes occurred in the Aw range of 0.50-0.74 or moisture content 9-15 g/100 g. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sanz-Penella J.M.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Tamayo-Ramos J.A.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Haros M.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2012

This investigation is aimed at developing a new cereal-based product, with increased nutritional quality, by using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 as starter in whole wheat sourdough fermentation and evaluating its performance. Four different sourdough levels (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% on flour basis) in bread dough formulation were analysed. The effects of the use of bifidobacteria in sourdough bread were comparatively evaluated with controls (yeast and/or chemically acidified sourdough with antibiotics). The sourdough and dough fermentative parameters analysed were pH, total titratable acidity, d/l-lactic and acetic acids. Bread performance was evaluated by specific volume, slice shape, crumb structure and firmness, crust and crumb colour, pH, total titratable acidity, and d/l-lactic and acetic acids, phytate, and lower myo-inositol phosphate contents. The sourdough breads showed similar technological quality to the control sample, with the exception of specific bread volume (decreased from 2. 46 to 2. 22 mL/g) and crumb firmness (increased from 2. 61 to 3. 18 N). Sourdough inoculated with bifidobacteria significantly increased the levels of organic acids in fermented dough and bread. The Bifidobacterium strain contributed to the fermentation process, increasing phytate hydrolysis during fermentation owing to the activation of endogenous cereal phytase and its own phytase, resulting in bread with significantly lower phytate levels (from 7. 62 to 1. 45 μmol/g of bread in dry matter). The inclusion of sourdough inoculated with bifidobacteria made possible the formulation of whole wheat bread with positive changes in starch thermal properties and a delay and decrease in amylopectin retrogradation. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Padilla B.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Manzanares P.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Belloch C.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC
Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

The yeasts present during the ripening process of ewes' and goats' cheeses produced in a small traditional dairy in Mediterranean Spain were isolated and identified. Five hundred and thirty strains pertaining to eleven yeast species representing eight genera were identified using molecular methods. Debaryomyces hansenii was the yeast species most frequently isolated in all cheeses. Other yeast species commonly found in dairy products were present at the first maturing weeks. Two yeast species Trichosporon coremiiforme and Trichosporon domesticum have been reported in cheeses for the first time, and Meyerozyma guilliermondii has been newly isolated from goats' cheeses. Yeast species composition changed greatly along the process; although, D.hansenii dominated at the end of ripening in all cheeses. Most yeast isolates were able to hydrolyze casein and fatty acid esters. One hundred and eighty seven D.hansenii isolates were genotyped by PCR amplification of M13 satellites and an UPGMA dendrogram was constructed. The majority of isolates were grouped in 5 clusters while 7 profiles were represented by 1-3 isolates. These results demonstrate the genetic heterogeneity present in D.hansenii strains isolated from raw milk cheeses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Iglesias-Puig E.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Haros M.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2013

As a result of the opinion given by the European Food Safety Authority about the safety of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) and whole ground chia seed as food ingredients, they may be placed on the market in the European Community as novel food ingredients to be used in bread products. The objective of the present investigation was to develop new cereal-based products with increased nutritional quality by using chia and ground chia seeds (whole chia flour, semi-defatted chia flour and low-fat chia flour) in order to evaluate its potential as a bread-making ingredient. The samples with chia addition significantly increased the levels of proteins, lipids, ash and dietary fibre in the final product compared to the control sample. Breads with seeds or ground seeds showed similar technological quality to the control bread, except for the increase in specific bread volume, decrease in crumb firmness and change in crumb colour. Sensory analysis showed that the inclusion of chia increased overall acceptability by consumers. The thermal properties of the starch did not alter substantially with the inclusion of chia. However, the incorporation of chia inhibited the kinetics of amylopectin retrogradation during storage, which would be directly related to the delay in bread staling. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Rosell C.M.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Santos E.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010

The technological functionality of different fibers (high methylated ester pectin, resistant starch, insoluble-soluble fiber blend) was tested in partially baked breads stored either under sub-zero or low temperatures, in order to assess their possible role as breadmaking ingredients in bake off technologies (BOT). Fiber-containing formulations affected bread specific volume and crumb hardness, and those characteristics were also dependent on both the breadmaking process (conventional or BOT) and the storage conditions of the par-baked bread (low or sub-zero temperatures). The inclusion of resistant starch (RS) and fiber blend in the bread formulation induced a reduction in the specific volume of the bread and an increase of hardness. Crumb image analysis indicated that breadmaking process affected significantly the number of alveoli. The storage of par-baked breads at low temperatures accelerates crumb hardening during staling, and that effect was greatly dependent on the duration of the storage, being that effect magnified in the case of breads containing fiber blend. Therefore, formulations should be carefully checked with the specific breadmaking process to be followed. Special attention should be paid to the storage conditions of the partially baked bread, since they significantly affect the technological quality of fresh breads and their behaviour during staling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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