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Sanz Y.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

The interplay between both heredity and environmental factors seems to affect every stage of development from conception to the early postnatal period with potential long-term effects on child and adult health. During pregnancy, immune and metabolic functions of the fetus are dependent on the mother; moreover, the refinement of these functions seems to commence inside the uterus and to be diet sensitive. The microbiota inhabiting the intestinal tract develop an array of physiologic roles within the human body, which influences both metabolic and immune functions, particularly during early neonatal life and possibly even in utero. Transmission of bacteria from the mother to the neonate through direct contact with maternal microbiota during birth and through breast milk during lactation also seems to influence the infant's gut colonization, with potential health consequences. In this context, intentional modulation of microbiota composition through the use of probiotics during the perinatal and early postnatal period has been proposed as a possible dietary strategy to reduce risk of disease. Herein, studies are reviewed on the composition of the intestinal microbiota during pregnancy and clinical trials evaluating the effects of perinatal administration of probiotics on different clinical outcomes. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Van Loveren H.,Maastricht University | Sanz Y.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology | Salminen S.,University of Turku
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Health claims regarding foods imply a relationship between a specific food and maintenance of good health, or that food can reduce the risk of disease. Health claim legislation in the European Union sets out from the concept of consumer protection. Health claim assessment focuses on defining given foods, assessing their health relationship, and evaluating relevant studies with an emphasis on controlled human intervention research. Challenges include the focus of claims on healthy populations, although most intervention studies have been conducted among patients. A further problem attends the risk reduction claim, which requires changes in generally accepted biomarkers reflecting the risk of disease. Scientific assessment and guidance documents direct the development of health claims both in Europe and elsewhere. Experience from completed assessments should make it possible to provide consumers with reliable claims to help them make healthier choices and develop lifestyles supporting long-term well-being. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. Source

Collado M.C.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology
Gut microbes | Year: 2012

The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life. Source

Sanz Y.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology
Gut microbes | Year: 2010

Diet is a major environmental factor influencing gut microbiota diversity and functionality, which might be relevant to subjects following dietary therapies. Celiac disease (CD) is an enteropathy caused by an aberrant immune response to cereal gluten proteins and the only therapy is the adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). In this context, a preliminary study was conducted to establish whether the GFD in itself could modify the composition and immune properties of the gut microbiota. The trial included 10 healthy subjects (30.3 years-old), which were submitted to a GFD over one month. Analysis of fecal microbiota and dietary intake indicated that numbers of healthy gut bacteria decreased, while numbers of unhealthy bacteria increased parallel to reductions in the intake of polysaccharides after following the GFD. Fecal samples of subjects under a GFD, which represent an altered microbiota, also exerted lower immune stimulatory effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells than those of subjects on a regular gluten-containing diet. This addendum presents further discussion on the rationale behind these findings, limitations of the study and possible consequences of dietary counselling in the care process of celiac disease patients. Source

Melero R.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology
Biochemia Medica | Year: 2015

Emerging metrics based on article-level does not exclude traditional metrics based on citations to the journal, but complements them. Both can be employed in conjunction to offer a richer picture of an article use from immediate to long terms. Article-level metrics (ALM) is the result of the aggregation of different data sources and the collection of content from multiple social network services. Sources used for the aggregation can be broken down into five categories: usage, captures, mentions, social media and citations. Data sources depend on the tool, but they include classic metrics indicators based on citations, academic social networks (Mendeley, CiteULike, Delicious) and social media (Facebook, Twitter, blogs, or Youtube, among others). Altmetrics is not synonymous with alternative metrics. Altmetrics are normally early available and allow to assess the social impact of scholarly outputs, almost at the real time. This paper overviews briefly the meaning of altmetrics and describes some of the existing tools used to apply this new metrics: Public Library of Science - Article-Level Metrics, Altmetric, Impactstory and Plum. © 2015, Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Source

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