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Laitinen K.,Functional Foods Forum | Laitinen K.,University of Turku | Collado M.C.,Functional Foods Forum | Collado M.C.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Science | Isolauri E.,University of Turku
Beneficial Microbes | Year: 2010

Balanced maternal nutrition during pregnancy ensures both the growth and development of the foetus and the well-being of the mother. Recent evidence supports the programming theory, which envisages long-lasting effects on later risk of chronic life-style-related diseases by early nutrition. The increasing problem of overweight, affecting almost half of the female population in Western societies, sets off adverse programming effects in the offspring manifested in subsequent health effects. To combat this problem, new tools involving life-style modifications are being actively sought to increment the traditional approaches. Immunonutrition, the ability of nutrients to influence the activities of cells in the immune system, may be one answer in combating low-grade systemic inflammation, the key underlying determinant in the obesity epidemic. Further, microbial compounds possess immunomodulatory properties which may be utilised to improve immune responses in clinically meaningful ways. Aberrant microbiota compositions have been detected during critical periods when early programming occurs, including pregnancy and infancy. Such alterations may regulate the health of the infant and the risk of subsequent disease, as demonstrated by the divergence in gut microbiota composition between healthy and overweight individuals. It may thus be hypothesised that the composition of the gut microbiota could be used as a target for intervention. Probiotics interact with the mucosal immune system via the same pathways as commensal bacteria to influence both innate and adaptive immune responses. In consequence, interventions with immunomodulatory diets, including certain nutrients and probiotics, may be critical in coordinating the adaptive function necessary for the formation of tolerance and thus in the prevention of undesirable metabolic consequences.

Gomez-Gallego C.,University of Murcia | Collado M.C.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Science | Ilo T.,University of Turku | Jaakkola U.-M.,University of Turku | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Polyamines play a critical role in the development of intestinal and immune systems during the infant breastfeeding period, but the effect of polyamines on the microbiota has not been reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the impact on the colonization pattern in neonatal BALB/cOlaHsd mice after supplementing an infant formula (IF) with a mixture of putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM). A total of 48 pups (14 days old) were randomly assigned to 4-day intervention groups as follows: breast-fed (unweaned) pups (n=12); weaned pups (n=12) fed an infant formula (IF); weaned pups (n=12) fed an IF enriched with a low concentration of PUT, SPD and SPM (2.10, 22.05 and 38.00 μg/day, respectively); and weaned pups (n=12) fed with IF enriched with a high concentration of PUT, SPD and SPM (8.40, 88.20 and 152.00 μg/day, respectively) of polyamines in accordance with normal proportions found in human milk. Microbiota composition was analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with flow cytometry detection. Microbiota changes in formula-fed mice were significantly greater following supplementation with polyamines (P<.01). Bifidobacterium group bacteria, Akkermansia-like bacteria and Lactobacillus- Enterococcus group levels were higher in the groups fed infant formula supplemented with polyamines, resulting in even higher numbers of bacteria than in the breastfed pups. Our findings indicate that infant formulas enriched with polyamines may interact with gut microbiota, suggesting that further studies in human infants are required to assess the impact of polyamines on both growth and microbiota levels. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Grzeskowiak L.,University of Turku | Endo A.,University of Turku | Collado M.C.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Science | Pelliniemi L.J.,University of Turku | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Aims: The manufacturing processes have been reported to influence the properties of probiotics with potential impact on health properties. The aim was to investigate the effect of different growth media and inactivation methods on the properties of canine-originated probiotic bacteria alone and in combination mixture. Methods and Results: Three established dog probiotics, Lactobacillus fermentum VET9A, Lactobacillus plantarum VET14A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus VET16A, and their combination mixture were evaluated for their adhesion to dog mucus. The effect of different growth media, one reflecting laboratory and the other manufacturing conditions, and inactivation methods (95°C, 80°C and UV irradiation) on the mucus adhesion of the probiotic strains was characterized. Evaluation of dog probiotics was supported by cell visualization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Higher adhesion percentage was reported for probiotic strains growing in laboratory rather than in manufacturing conditions (P < 0·05). Inactivation by heat (95°C, 80°C) decreased the adhesion properties when strains were cultivated in soy-based growth media compared with those grown in MRS broth (P < 0·05). TEM observations uncovered differences in cell-surface components in nonviable forms of probiotic strains as compared with their viable forms. Conclusions: Manufacturing process conditions such as growth media and pretreatment methods may significantly affect the adhesive ability of the tested strains. Significance and Impact of the Study: Growth conditions, growth media, pretreatment methods and different probiotic combinations should be carefully considered for quality control of existing probiotics and for identification of new probiotics for dogs. These may also have an impact on health benefits for the host. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Rautava S.,University of Turku | Collado M.C.,University of Turku | Collado M.C.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Science | Salminen S.,University of Turku | Isolauri E.,University of Turku
Neonatology | Year: 2012

Background: Early host-microbe interaction provides important maturational stimuli for the developing immune system. The role of prenatal microbial contact remains elusive. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate whether microbes in placenta or amniotic fluid affect fetal innate immune gene expression during late pregnancy and whether innate immune gene expression profiles in the placenta and the fetal gut may be modulated by dietary supplementation with specific probiotics. Methods: Altogether 43 pregnant women were randomized to receive (1) Bifidobacterium lactis, (2) B. lactis in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or (3) placebo for 14 days before elective cesarian section at full term in a double-blind clinical trial. Bacteria in amniotic fluid and placenta were detected by quantitative (q)PCR. The expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-related genes in the placenta and meconium samples was assessed by qPCR. Gene expression patterns in meconium were interpreted to reflect immune physiology in the fetal gut. Results: The study was completed by 29 mother-infant pairs. Bacterial DNA was detected in all placenta samples. Microbial DNA in amniotic fluid and placenta was associated with changes in TLR-related gene expression in the fetal intestine. Maternal probiotic supplementation significantly modulated the expression of TLR-related genes both in the placenta and in the fetal gut. Conclusions: Microbial contact in utero is associated with changes in fetal intestinal innate immune gene expression profile. Fetal and placental immune physiology may be modulated by maternal dietary intervention using specific probiotics. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Grzeskowiak L.,University of Turku | Collado M.C.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Science | Mangani C.,University of Malawi | Maleta K.,University of Malawi | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background and Objective: The intestinal microbiota composition in infants reflects the early environment. Our objective was to compare the gut microbiota in 6-month-old infants living in rural Malawi with children of the same age living in urban Finland, both being breast-fed and having an age-appropriate diet typical for each area. Methods: Malawian 6-month-old infants (n=44) were compared with Finnish infants (n=31) of the same age. In both cohorts, infant stool samples were available for microbiota characterization by flow cytometry-fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Results: Bifidobacteria were dominant at 6 months of age in all of the infants, although in greater proportions in Malawian (70.8%) than in Finnish infants (46.8%; P<0.001). Additional distinctions in bacterial group composition comprised Bacteroides-Prevotella (17.2% vs 4.7%; P<0.001) and Clostridium histolyticum (4.4% vs 2.8%; P=0.01), respectively. The species Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus were absent in Malawian but detected in Finnish infants. Conclusions: The gut microbiota of 6-month-old infants in a low-income country differs significantly from that in a high-income country. This may have an effect on both the energy harvest from the diet typifying malnutrition and diarrheal diseases in low-income countries and Western lifestyle diseases in high-income countries. Copyright © 2012 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology.

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