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Zhang A.,Institute of Agro Environment and Sustainable Development CAAS Key Laboratory of Ago Environment and Climate Change | Gao J.,Institute of Agro Environment and Sustainable Development CAAS Key Laboratory of Ago Environment and Climate Change | Liu R.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and forestry science Ningxia China | Chen Z.,Institute of Agro Environment and Sustainable Development CAAS Key Laboratory of Ago Environment and Climate Change | And 4 more authors.
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2015

High N fertilizer and flooding irrigation applied to rice in anthropogenic-alluvial soil often result in N leaching and low use efficiency of applied fertilizer N from the rice field in Ningxia irrigation region in the upper reaches of the Yellow River. Sound N management practices need to be established to improve N use efficiency while sustaining high grain yield levels and minimize fertilizer N loss to the environment. We investigated the effects of Nursery Box Total Fertilization technology (NBTF) on N leaching at different rice growing stages, N use efficiency and rice yield in 2010 and 2011. The four fertilizer N treatments were 300kgNha-1 (CU, Conventional treatment of urea at 300kgNha-1), 120kgNha-1 (NBTF120, NBTF treatment of controlled-release N fertilizer at 120kgNha-1), 80 kgNha-1 (NBTF80, NBTF treatment of controlled-release N fertilizer at 80kgNha-1) and no N fertilizer application treatment (CK). The results showed that the NBTF120 treatment increased N use efficiency, maintained crop yields and substantially reduced N losses to the environment. Under the CU treatment, the rice yield was 9634 and 7098kgha-1, the N use efficiency was 31·6% and 34·8% and the leaching losses of TN were 44·51 and 39·89kgha-1; NH4 +-N was 5·26 and 5·49kgha-1, and NO3 --N was 27·94 and 26·22kgha-1 during the rice whole growing period in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Compared with CU, NBTF120 significantly increased the N use efficiency and decreased the N losses from the paddy field. Under NBTF120, the N use efficiency was 56·3% and 51·4%, which was 24·7% and 16·6% higher than that of CU, and the conventional fertilizer application rate could be reduced by 60% without lowering the rice yield while decreasing the leaching losses of TN by 16·27 and 14·36kgha-1, NH4 +-N by 0·90 and 1·84kgha-1, NO3 --N by 110·6 and 10·14kgha-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Our results indicate that the CU treatment resulted in relatively high N leaching losses, and that alternative practice of NBTF which synchronized fertilizer application with crop demand substantially reduced these losses. We therefore suggest the NBTF120 be a fertilizer application alternative which leads to high food production but low environmental impact. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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