Institute of Agro Environment and Sustainable Development CAAS Key Laboratory of Ago Environment and Climate Change

China

Institute of Agro Environment and Sustainable Development CAAS Key Laboratory of Ago Environment and Climate Change

China
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Zhang A.,Institute of Agro Environment and Sustainable Development CAAS Key Laboratory of Ago Environment and Climate Change | Gao J.,Institute of Agro Environment and Sustainable Development CAAS Key Laboratory of Ago Environment and Climate Change | Liu R.,Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and forestry science Ningxia China | Chen Z.,Institute of Agro Environment and Sustainable Development CAAS Key Laboratory of Ago Environment and Climate Change | And 5 more authors.
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2015

High N fertilizer and flooding irrigation applied to rice in anthropogenic-alluvial soil often result in N leaching and low use efficiency of applied fertilizer N from the rice field in Ningxia irrigation region in the upper reaches of the Yellow River. Sound N management practices need to be established to improve N use efficiency while sustaining high grain yield levels and minimize fertilizer N loss to the environment. We investigated the effects of Nursery Box Total Fertilization technology (NBTF) on N leaching at different rice growing stages, N use efficiency and rice yield in 2010 and 2011. The four fertilizer N treatments were 300kgNha-1 (CU, Conventional treatment of urea at 300kgNha-1), 120kgNha-1 (NBTF120, NBTF treatment of controlled-release N fertilizer at 120kgNha-1), 80 kgNha-1 (NBTF80, NBTF treatment of controlled-release N fertilizer at 80kgNha-1) and no N fertilizer application treatment (CK). The results showed that the NBTF120 treatment increased N use efficiency, maintained crop yields and substantially reduced N losses to the environment. Under the CU treatment, the rice yield was 9634 and 7098kgha-1, the N use efficiency was 31·6% and 34·8% and the leaching losses of TN were 44·51 and 39·89kgha-1; NH4 +-N was 5·26 and 5·49kgha-1, and NO3 --N was 27·94 and 26·22kgha-1 during the rice whole growing period in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Compared with CU, NBTF120 significantly increased the N use efficiency and decreased the N losses from the paddy field. Under NBTF120, the N use efficiency was 56·3% and 51·4%, which was 24·7% and 16·6% higher than that of CU, and the conventional fertilizer application rate could be reduced by 60% without lowering the rice yield while decreasing the leaching losses of TN by 16·27 and 14·36kgha-1, NH4 +-N by 0·90 and 1·84kgha-1, NO3 --N by 110·6 and 10·14kgha-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Our results indicate that the CU treatment resulted in relatively high N leaching losses, and that alternative practice of NBTF which synchronized fertilizer application with crop demand substantially reduced these losses. We therefore suggest the NBTF120 be a fertilizer application alternative which leads to high food production but low environmental impact. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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