Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research

Merelbeke, Belgium

Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research

Merelbeke, Belgium

Time filter

Source Type

Khatri-Chhetri H.B.,Ghent University | Timsina G.P.,Nepal Agricultural Research Council | Manandhar H.K.,Nepal Agricultural Research Council | Moens M.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Moens M.,Ghent University
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2011

Holotrichia longipennis Blanch. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a serious pest of commercial crops in Siduwa, Dhankuta, Nepal. Seven indigenous isolates of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema lamjungense LMT5, S. lamjungense SS4, S. everestense DKP4, S. abbasi CS1, S. sp. KL1, Heterorhabditis indica CK2 and H. indica CK6) were used in a series of bioassays against the insect. All isolates showed an increased dispersal in response to H. longipennis. Nematodes were more attracted towards third instar larvae than to second instars. Differences in penetration and multiplication in the insect were observed amongst the seven isolates. Steinernema lamjungense LMT5, S. everestense DKP4 and S. abbasi CS1 caused greater mortality than other isolates to different developmental stages. Pupae and second instar larvae were more susceptible than third instar larvae. Significant differences were observed in LT50 values of the isolates against different stages of H. longipennis. Three isolates (S. lamjungense LMT5, S. everestense DKP4 and S. abbasi CS1) along with a commonly used insecticide (chlorpyrifos) were tested against this insect in pot and field experiments. In pot experiments using maize and cabbage as a host crop, S. lamjungense LMT5 and S. everestense DKP4 performed better than S. abbasi CS1 and yielded a mortality comparable with chlorpyrifos. Similar results were observed in field experiments 3 weeks after nematode application. These experiments overall suggest S. lamjungense LMT5 to be a promising biocontrol agent against H. longipennis followed by S. everestense DKP4 and S. abbasi CS1. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Ma J.,Ghent University | Moens M.,Ghent University | Moens M.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Han R.,Guangdong Entomological Institute | De Clercq P.,Ghent University
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2013

Chive gnat, Bradysia odoriphaga Yang & Zhang (Diptera: Sciaridae), is the most serious pest of Chinese chive, Allium tuberosum. The present study aimed at determining the biocontrol potential of different indigenous entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) isolates for the management of chive gnat in China. The virulence of 145 EPN isolates belonging to 13 species against B. odoriphaga was evaluated in the laboratory, and then the most promising isolates (Steinernema ceratophorum HQA-87; S. hebeiense JY-82; S. feltiae JY-90, JY-17; S. litorale HXY-68; Heterorhabditis indica ZZ-68; H. bacteriophora NY-63, HQ-94; and H. megidis LFS-10) were selected for further experiments. The mortality of fourth instar B. odoriphaga was significantly affected by nematode isolates and concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ). Third and fourth instars of B. odoriphaga were generally more susceptible to the nematodes than first and second instars and pupae. Pot experiments showed no differences in B. odoriphaga population reduction at 50 and 75 IJ/cm2 of different isolates; the tested isolates caused a 78-94 % reduction of the chive gnat population at an application rate of 75 IJ/cm2. In a field experiment, S. feltiae JY-90 generated the strongest pest suppression 14 days after EPN application, whereas after 28 days pest densities in the plots treated with S. feltiae JY-17 and S. hebeiense JY-82 were similar to those in plots treated with phoxim and yielded significant reductions of the B. odoriphaga populations. Our findings indicate that EPN may have good potential for use in the integrated management of B. odoriphaga populations in Chinese chive. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Brautigam K.,University of Toronto | Vining K.J.,Oregon State University | Lafon-Placette C.,CNRS Laboratory of Woody Plants and Crops Biology | Fossdal C.G.,Norwegian Forest And Landscape Institute | And 15 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Epigenetic variation is likely to contribute to the phenotypic plasticity and adaptative capacity of plant species, and may be especially important for long-lived organisms with complex life cycles, including forest trees. Diverse environmental stresses and hybridization/polyploidization events can create reversible heritable epigenetic marks that can be transmitted to subsequent generations as a form of molecular "memory". Epigenetic changes might also contribute to the ability of plants to colonize or persist in variable environments. In this review, we provide an overview of recent data on epigenetic mechanisms involved in developmental processes and responses to environmental cues in plant, with a focus on forest tree species. We consider the possible role of forest tree epigenetics as a new source of adaptive traits in plant breeding, biotechnology, and ecosystem conservation under rapid climate change. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Spiridonov S.E.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Waeyenberge L.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Moens M.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Moens M.,Ghent University
Russian Journal of Nematology | Year: 2010

Steinernema schliemanni sp. n. found on the surface of a cadaver of Osmoderma ceremita (Coleoptera) in Germany in April 2003 is described. The new species belongs to the group of species related to S. monticolum ('monticolum '-group). It differs from the other species of this group in the structure of the lateral field of infective juveniles, viz. 8 equal ridges at mid-body in S. schliemanni sp. n. vs unequal ridges in S. monticolum and S. robustispiculum and five ridges in S. ashiuense. Infective juveniles of S. schliemanni sp. n. are longer (842-1008 μm) than those of all other species of the 'monticolum' group. Steinernema schliemanni sp. n. differs from the other species of the 'monticolum '-group in at least 115 positions of the ITS rDNA sequence (18%). The nucleotide difference of the D2D3 region of the LSU rDNA between S. schliemanni sp. n. and the closest species, S. monticolum, is 22 bp (3.9% of the compared sequences), which is higher than differences between species such as S. feltiae, S. kraussei and S. oregonense. The 16S rDNA sequence of the bacterium associated with S. schliemanni sp. n. demonstrates close relationships with several Xenorhabdus species; the nucleotide difference is the lowest with X. hominickii (28 bp or 2%), isolated from S. monticolum.


Khatri-Chhetri H.B.,District Agriculture Development Office | Khatri-Chhetri H.B.,Ghent University | Waeyenberge L.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Spiridonov S.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | And 3 more authors.
Nematology | Year: 2011

A new species of entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema everestense n. sp., was recovered from soil samples collected from Pakhribas, Dhankuta district of Nepal, during a survey in 2007. The analysis of ITS-rDNA and D2D3 LSU sequences placed S. everestense n. sp. in the feltiae-kraussei-oregonense group. The nematode can be separated from other described species of Steinernema by morphological and morphometric characteristics and by characterisations and phylogeny inferred from DNA sequences of the D2D3 LSU or ITS regions of rDNA. For infective juveniles, the new species can be recognised by the body length of 775 (705-838) μm, pharynx 119 (110-130) μm long, H% = 61 (47-68) and E% = 78 (60-89). The lateral field pattern is 2, 8, 6, 4, 3. The males have well curved, brownish-yellow spicules with a prominent but short velum, gubernaculum plump, boat-shaped to almost straight in lateral view, cuneus long, needle-shaped, corpus with two wings in ventral view. Spicule and gubernaculum length of the first generation males is 79 (65-87) μm and 50 (39-57) μm, respectively. A tail mucron is present in both male generations. Genital papillae total 23 or 25, comprising 11 or 12 pairs and a single midventral papilla. Specimens with 23 genital papillae have eight precloacal pairs (seven pairs subventral and one pair lateral), two pairs subterminal and one pair subdorsal. The most posterior two pairs are consistently located near the tail tip. The specimens with 25 genital papillae have an extra adcloacal pair of papillae and the anteriormost two pairs are close together. The vulva is slightly protruding, mostly with equal lips, and low epiptygmata. A post-anal swelling is developed in most first and all second generation females. © 2011 BRILL.


Khatri-Chhetri H.B.,District Agriculture Development Office | Khatri-Chhetri H.B.,Ghent University | Waeyenberge L.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Spiridonov S.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | And 3 more authors.
Nematology | Year: 2011

A new species of entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema lamjungense n. sp., was recovered from soil samples collected from Tarku, Lamjung district of Nepal, during a survey in 2007. The analysis of ITS-rDNA sequence placed S. lamjungense n. sp. in the arenarium-glaseri-karii-longicaudum group. The nematode can be separated from other described species of the group by morphological and morphometric characteristics of different stages and by characterisations and phylogeny of DNA sequences of the D2D3 domain of the LSU or ITS regions of rDNA. For infective juveniles, the new species can be recognised by medium-long body length of 832 (690-950) μm, pharynx length of 127 (110-142) μm, H% = 61 (55-69) and E% = 79 (69-97). The lateral field pattern is 2, 6, 7, 8, 3, 2. The males have well curved, yellowish-brown spicules with a prominent velum. The spicule terminus is blunt with a longitudinal ventral notch. Spicule length is 87 (81-94) μm and gubernaculum length is 57 (50-66) μm in the first generation males. A tail mucron is absent in first but present in second generation males. First generation males have a lateral field with a single ridge. A post-anal swelling is not developed in first generation females but is well developed in second generation females. Three other isolates of the same species were recovered from the neighbourhood of the type locality and yet another isolate was collected from Swarketari, Syangja district. © 2011 BRILL.


Tamiru T.,Ghent University | Waeyenberge L.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Hailu T.,Ambo Plant Protection Research Center | Ehlers R.-U.,University of Kiel | And 2 more authors.
Nematology | Year: 2012

Three isolates (Dero-1, Dero-8 and Mosisa-1) of a new entomopathogenic nematode, S. ethiopiense sp. n., were isolated by baiting soil samples from the Mendi area, Western Wollega, Ethiopia, with last instar wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella. Infective juveniles of S. ethiopiense sp. n. have a body length of 898 (768-1010) μrn, a maximum of eight identical ridges (i.e., nine lines) in the lateral field, excretory pore located at mid-pharynx, hyaline layer occupying approximately half of the tail and c' = 3.2. First generation males lack a caudal mucron, whereas second generation males possess a short spine-like mucron. The spicules are slightly arcuate, golden-brown in colour and have an ellipsoid or oblong manubrium. First generation females lack a postanal swelling and have a minute protuberance on the tail tip whereas second generation females have a postanal swelling and protruding vulva. Based on the morphology, morphometries and DNA analysis, the new species belongs to the glaseri group. The closest relative species is the afro-tropical S. karii recorded from Kenya. The BLAST analysis of the ITS region of the rDNA revealed a similarity of 93% with S. karii, supporting the validity of S. ethiopiense sp. n. as a new species. In the phylogenetic trees the new species groups together only with S. karii (bootstrap value of 100%), but is also separated from S. karii by a bootstrap value of 100% or 70%. © Koninklijke Brill NV., Leiden, 2012.


Prove C.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Prove C.,Ghent University | Dessein J.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Dessein J.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Land Use Policy | Year: 2016

This article explores the role of local particularism in relation to the global interest in urban agriculture (UA). A growing movement is advocating UA, but future prospects are limited by variability, unclear expectations, vague responsibilities and leadership in the UA movement. We wonder whether the poor understanding of UA governance is associated with a public discourse and academic literature that too easily adopt the generic and universally claimed benefits. We argue here that uncritical enthusiasm results in an overly instrumental approach to governance of UA with a main focus on stimulating formal (e.g., policy making) and informal advocacy (e.g., civic engagement in UA). We do not deny the importance of formal and informal advocacy in UA development, but rather claim that the potential of UA needs a more nuanced analysis. Study of the interplay between UA advocacy and a city's contextual characteristics is a worthy pursuit, as it may provide significant and more profound explanations for the divergence observed in UA developments. Case studies performed in Warsaw (Poland) and Ghent (Belgium) serve to illustrate the importance of context. The results suggest that neither case is likely to benefit from a governance strategy that only stimulates greater advocacy and institutional support. The inclusion of city-specific needs, opportunities and pitfalls of UA in the governance strategy can help to move UA toward its full potential. We suggest a policy-making strategy for UA that expands beyond the realm of food production alone. Ultimately, the aim is to steer away from assessing (and critiquing) UA solely against the backdrop of these generic success factors. © 2016 The Authors.


Khatri-Chhetri H.B.,District Agriculture Development Office | Khatri-Chhetri H.B.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Waeyenberge L.,Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research | Manandhar H.K.,Nepal Agricultural Research Council | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2010

A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted for the first time in Nepal during June-December 2007. EPN were recovered from 29 of the 276 soil samples (10.50%). Molecular and morphological tools were used to identify the isolates. Among 29 positive samples, seven samples (24.14%) yielded heterorhabditids (Heterorhabditis indica) and 22 samples (75.86%) contained steinernematids. Among steinernematids, seven isolates were identified as one of four described species (Steinernema abbasi, S. cholashanense, S. feltiae and S. siamkayai) whereas 15 isolates did not fit any description. H. indica was recovered from diverse habitats. Distribution of steinernematids has followed ecological niches and localized areas. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Ghent University, Catholic University of Leuven and Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied microbiology | Year: 2016

During a previous study concerning brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), selective streptomycin thallous acetate actidione (STAA) agar was used to determine the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta. However, the growth of Vagococcus salmoninarum on this medium was also noticed. This study explores the spoilage potential of this organism when inoculated on sterile shrimp.Isolates growing on STAA were identified using (GTG)5 clustering followed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Their biochemical spoilage potential was analysed for H2 S production and enzymatic activities were tested using an APIZYM test. Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyse the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during storage of inoculated shrimp.Fifty-five per cent of isolates taken from STAA could be identified as V.salmoninarum, while no apparent morphological difference with B.thermosphacta isolates was identified upon the prescribed incubation conditions. For isolates identified as V.salmoninarum, production of 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone was found, as was the possibility to form H2 S.When using the STAA medium for detecting B.thermosphacta, one should consider the possible abundant presence of V.salmoninarum as well. Based on this study, V.salmoninarum does not exhibit great spoilage potential, although it can produce H2 S and formed VOCs which are also found in other spoiled seafood products.

Loading Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research collaborators
Loading Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research collaborators