Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering

Braunschweig, Germany

Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering

Braunschweig, Germany

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Hezarjaribi A.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Abdalla A.A.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering | Hesam M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Zahiri A.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Nasrabad G.G.,Cotton Research Institute of Iran
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2010

The water viscosity changes due to changing water temperature, and causes emitter discharge variations if the flow through the emitter is laminar. The efficiency of drip irrigation system depends directly on the uniformity of water discharged from the emitters throughout the system. The objective of this study was laboratory studying of three different types of emitters (two inline emitters of Siplast and Inline-168, and one online emitter of Katif-8) to investigate the effect of different water temperatures of 14,22,32,42°C on water temperature at 50, 100, and 150 kPa. Although Siplast and Inline-168 were classified NPC emitters and in spit of increasing water temperature from 12 to 42deg;C, but slid increase of theirs discharge with temperature exhibited that their sensitivity to water temperature are not significant. In case of Katif-8, not only variation in water temperature but also generally variation in operation pressure could not vary emitter discharge (classified as a PC emitter). High coefficient of determination and mainly as quadratic relation were found between TDR and water temperature. Although most TDR-water temperature data have been shown to be linear, but in this study both linear and quadratic functions were found with high coefficient of determination. Also laboratory observation showed extension of drip tube length as water temperature increased. Copyright@ EM International.


Schroder O.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering | Munack A.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering | Schaak J.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering | Pabst C.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2012

Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non-regulated exhaust gas components, some deviations from this linear trend were detected.


Krahl J.,Coburg University of Applied Sciences | Munack A.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering | Schroder O.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering | Ruschel Y.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants | Year: 2010

A 500 hours endurance test was performed with a heavy duty engine (Euro IV); MAN type D 0836 LFL 51 equipped with a PM-Kat ®. As fuel 100% biodiesel was used that met the European specification EN 14214. The 500 hours endurance test included both the European stationary and transient cycle (ESC and ETC) as well as longer stationary phases. During the test, regulated emissions (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and particulate matter), the particle number distribution and the aldehydes emission were continuously measured. For comparison, tests with fossil diesel fuel were performed before and after the endurance test. During the endurance test the engine was failure-free for 500 hours with the biogenic fuel. There were almost no differences in specific fuel consumption during the test, but the average exhaust gas temperature increased by about 15°C over the time. Emissions changed only slightly during the test. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and aldehydes were effectively eliminated by the oxidation catalyst as part of the PM-Kat ®. The concentration of hydrocarbons was partially under background level and the emissions of hydrocarbons as well as carbon monoxide were well under the regulatory requirements. Nitrogen oxides emissions increased, as expected, by 10% when using biodiesel instead of fossil diesel fuel. So they slightly exceeded the legal limit of Euro IV. During the test small increases of nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and particle numbers were observed. In all, the endurance test demonstrated clearly that the engine can be driven with 100% biodiesel and the biogenic fuel has no effect on the continuously operating PM-Kat ®. However, the exhaust gas system might have some optimization potential for biodiesel. © 2010 SAE International.


Hezarjaribi A.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Sourell H.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering | Nasrabad G.G.,Irrigation and Drainage | Gharanjiki A.,Cotton Research Institute of Iran | Abedinpour M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

Capacitance probe sensors are a popular electromagnetic method of measuring soil water content. In this study EnviroSCAN capacitance sensors were calibrated for a sandy and loamy sand soils and the water contents estimated by calibrated equation and with those estimated by the manufacturer's default (uncalibrated) equation were statistically compared. Results demonstrated that calibrated EnviroSCAN sensor could be used as the standard instrument to measure soil water content in loamy sand, but it was not found as a reliable method to measure soil water content in sandy soil. The uncalibrated equation of both of soil textures appeared to consistently understimate soil water content. A large discrepancies existed between calibrated and uncalibrated values for both of soil textures. Calibrated values of soil water content in loamy sand profile were close to those measured by the soil samples. Calibration of EnviroSCAN capacitance sensor found to give more accurate estimation of soil water content values, and essential to improve sensor's performance, compared to those obtained from the uncalibrated equation in loamy sand soil. © Global Science Publications.


Joachim B.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering | Klaus N.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering | Norbert F.,Crop Science | Berthold O.,Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering
Landtechnik | Year: 2012

Even before laws and restrictions raised the awareness of soil protection, tillage is under suspicion to cause enduring damage to the subsoil. Industry has been trying, on the one hand, to develop alternatives like on-land ploughing but, on the other hand, long-term studies show that the compaction zone at the plough pan on German fields had not increased in the past 50 years, but rather reduced. Which stresses actually occur due to the passage of tractor wheels in the plough furrows? The results presented here provide a surprising answer.

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