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Schmalenbach I.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | March T.J.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | March T.J.,University of Adelaide | Pillen K.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 3 more authors.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2011

Genetically well-characterized mapping populations are a key tool for rapid and precise localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and subsequent identification of the underlying genes. In this study, a set of 73 introgression lines (S42ILs) originating from a cross between the spring barley cultivar Scarlett (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the wild barley accession ISR42-8 (H. v. ssp. spontaneum) was subjected to high-resolution genotyping with an Illumina 1536-SNP array. The array enabled a precise localization of the wild barley introgressions in the elite barley background. Based on 636 informative SNPs, the S42IL set represents 87.3% of the wild barley genome, where each line contains on average 3.3% of the donor genome. Furthermore, segregating high-resolution mapping populations (S42IL-HRs) were developed for 70 S42ILs in order to facilitate QTL fine-mapping and cloning. As a case study, we used the developed genetic resources to rapidly identify and fine-map the novel locus thresh-1 on chromosome 1H that controls grain threshability. Here, the recessive wild barley allele confers a difficult to thresh phenotype, suggesting that thresh-1 played an important role during barley domestication. Using a S42IL-HR population, thresh-1 was fine-mapped within a 4.3cM interval that was predicted to contain candidate genes involved in regulation of plant cell wall composition. The set of wild barley introgression lines and derived high-resolution populations are ideal tools to speed up the process of mapping and further dissecting QTL, which ultimately clears the way for isolating the genes behind QTL effects. © 2011 Schmalenbach et al.

Merbach W.,Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Science | Deubel A.,Anhalt University of Applied Sciences | Gransee A.,Kali and Salz AG | Ruppel S.,Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops | Klamroth A.-K.,Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Science
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2010

Limited fertilization adapted to plant demand is of high economical and ecological relevance. This requires a reliable analysis of plant available P, based on knowledge of phosphorus dynamics in soils and P mobilization by plants. On chernozem-like soils, as well as under dry conditions, the double-lactate (DL) phosphate extraction methods apparently do not adequately reflect the P uptake ability of plants. This paper summarizes rhizosphere processes that affect P availability partly by reference of selected own experiments. Root exudates increased the double-lactate (DL) extractable P amount of soils in sterile and non sterile cultures. Microbial colonisation increased both the exudate amount and the specific ability of exudates to solubilize P. In spite of rapid exudate turnover, DL-P solubility was increased. Sugars released from P-deficient plants increased the P solubilizing ability of a bacterial strain (Enterobacter radicincitans), perhaps by changing bacterial acid production. Root exudates solubilized more P from soil than lactate extracts did. An investigation of physiological processes in the rhizosphere could contribute to a better understanding of nutrient availability and perhaps lead to the development of extraction methods that better reflect the availability of soil phosphorus to plants. Connecting field experiments with basic studies offers the opportunity to better understand plant nutritional processes to realize an effective and sustainable agriculture. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Kostandi S.F.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Soliman M.F.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Beschow H.,Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional science | Merbach W.,Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional science
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2012

Replacing new corn genotypes in agricultural practices requires adequate information on the reaction of the selected hybrids to Cd uptake in Cd-polluted soil and an understanding of interactions with N fertilizers. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial pot experiment with limed soil (pH 8), two maize (Zea mays) hybrids (Pioneer cultivar yellow and Pioneer cultivar white), two N fertilization forms (NH4 + and NO3 -) and three Cd exposures (0, 2 and 5 mg kg-1 soil) was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Shoot dry mass increased significantly with NH4 + nutrition compared with NO3 - nutrition in both maize hybrids, with greater negative influence of Cd application combined with NH4 + nutrition. The yellow cultivar had significantly greater shoot dry mass and lower Cd uptake than the white cultivar. Both hybrids exhibited similar N uptake in shoots and roots, with the exception of yellow cultivar with NH4 + nutrition without Cd application. NO3 - nutrition always decreased Cd uptake in both cultivars compared with NH4 + nutrition. The N balance (mean across cultivars and Cd supply) after harvest showed most N uptake with NH4 + nutrition (63.4%) and Nmin remains in the soil with NO3 - nutrition (48.7%). Soil pH decreased more with NH4 + (-0.95 pH units) than NO3 - nutrition (-0.21). © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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