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Montowska M.,University of Life Sciences in Poznan | Montowska M.,University of Nottingham | Pospiech E.,University of Life Sciences in Poznan | Pospiech E.,Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The aim was to search for proteins differentiating the six species (cattle, pig, chicken, turkey, duck and goose) and relatively stable during the meat aging and only slightly degraded in ready-made products. The two-dimensional electrophoresis was used for analysis of the protein profiles from raw meat and frankfurters and sausages (15 products). The observed species-specific differences in protein expression in raw meat were retained in processed products after finishing the entire technological process. Regulatory proteins, metabolic enzymes, some myofibrillar and blood plasma proteins were identified, which were characterised by the electrophoretic mobility specific to the given species. Large differences in the primary structure were observed in serum albumin, apolipoprotein B, HSP27, H-FABP, ATP synthase, cytochrome bc-1 subunit 1 and alpha-ETF. Some of these proteins have potential to be used as markers in authentication of meat products. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Baturo-Ciesniewska A.,University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz | Suchorzynska M.,Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

Rapid and sensitive methods to detect Fusarium culmorum and trichothecene and zearalenone producing strains in food and feed are valuable in predicting potential contamination. In this study the effectiveness of primers, recommended in the literature, for species identification of F. culmorum and basic genes encoding for mycotoxin production was tested. A total of 68 isolates of F. culmorum were collected from cereals and potato between 2005 and 2008 from different Polish provinces. It was shown that from among the four primer pairs enabling the identification of F. culmorum, and therefore also to establish its presence in the material, only primers Fc01F/Fc01R seem to be fully effective in the case of Polish strains. Determination of material contamination by F. culmorum, however, is only a first step in determining food safety. It is also extremely important to identify genes encoding the potential ability to produce mycotoxins. It was shown that three pairs of primers (tox5-1/tox5-2, HATriF/HATriR and Tri5F/Tri5R) enable a fully effective identification of the presence of the Tri5 gene responsible for producing trichothecenes. Determination of the DON-chemotype, and thus identification of the strains of F. culmorum potentially producing deoxynivalenol, is enabled equally by MinusTri7F/MinusTri7F, Tri7F/Tri7DON and Tri13F/Tri13DONR. However, a determination of the NIV-chemotype, and thus identification of the strains potentially producing nivalenol, is enabled by Tri7F/Tri7R, Tri7F/Tri7NIV and Tri13NIVF/Tri13R. The potential ability of isolates to produce ZEA can be determined to the same degree in assay with PKS4-PS.1/PKS4-PS.2 and F1/R1. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Montowska M.,University of Life Sciences in Poznan | Pospiech E.,University of Life Sciences in Poznan | Pospiech E.,Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology
Proteomics | Year: 2012

Investigation of protein changes as well as authentication of meat is particularly difficult in processed meat products due to their different composition, complexity and very often inhomogeneity. The aim of this study was to check if the inter-species differences in the expression of myosin light chain (MLC) isoforms observed in raw meat were retained in meat products. MLCs from mixtures of minced meat (16 variants), frankfurters and sausages (15 products) made from cattle, pig, chicken, turkey, duck and goose were analysed by 2DE. Species-specific patterns of MLC isoforms were observed in all the mixtures and processed meat products. Relatively small degradation was observed in the MLCs after processing. Image analysis enabled species identification of the meat in all samples when the content of meat of one species was not lower than 10%. However, it was impossible to differentiate between all the six species under investigation on the basis of individual isoform. It was possible when the combination of all the three isoforms (myosin light chain 1 fast, myosin light chain 2 fast and myosin light chain 3 fast) was analysed. The results evidenced that MLCs have potential to be used as markers in authentication of meat products made from the analysed six species. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Montowska M.,University of Life Sciences in Poznan | Pospiech E.,University of Life Sciences in Poznan | Pospiech E.,Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2012

Authentication of regional and traditional food made of meat poses a significant challenge. It continues to be a very difficult task which requires employment of quite advanced analytical techniques. These products, despite a similar process of manufacturing, differ in taste and aroma. This happens due to the use of special breeds of animals, the application of appropriate feeding regimes as well as the effect of the place and climate. In order to perform correct identification of geographical origin, a good solution is to determine both stable isotopes as well as trace elements. It is essential to collect detailed meteorological and geochemical data and information about farming practices and to compare them with the obtained results. In a majority of cases, the performed identification is confined to species and the determination of the animal breed is very limited. In the case of individual breeds a comparative analysis of SNPs appears to present the highest potential, especially genes affecting the coat color of animals may serve as markers. Experiments confirm that genes responsible for pigmentation underwent mutations in individual breeds. Authentication on the basis of the manufacturing process appears to be easier to realize than tracing geographical origins. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Kieliszek M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Kieliszek M.,Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology | Blazejak S.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Nutrition | Year: 2013

Selenium is a metalloid element with the atomic number 34. It is one of the elements that determine the normal functioning of an organism; it has antioxidant properties and protects the organism against the actions of free radicals and carcinogenic factors. Selenium is an element that fulfills an important physiologic function, but there is a fine line between the concentration that still has beneficial effects on an organism and that at which selenium begins exerting toxic effects. Selenium is involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides. It constitutes an integral part of some enzymes, including the glutathione peroxidase (GPx), deiodinase iodothyronine, and thioredoxin reductase (TRxR), which protect cells from the noxious effects of free radicals formed during oxidation processes. Selenium is found in relatively unfamiliar active proteins, generally designated selenoproteins. The significance of the newly identified type SelO, SelT, SelV, and SelI selenoproteins (Sel) still has not been completely elucidated. Studies clearly indicate that selenium-containing yeast can be an effective, safe, and natural source of dietary selenium. In general, the selenium content of various diets can differ significantly depending on the food items and, more importantly their geographical origin and the respective soil selenium content. Thus, it seems advisable to pay attention to the use of this element in the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods, including finished protein-mineral preparations that enrich those diets that are deficient in selenium. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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