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Duran Zuazo V.H.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Rodriguez Pleguezuelo C.R.,Catholic University of Louvain | Cuadros Tavira S.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Francia Martinez J.R.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2014

In agroforestry landscapes, land use, and the associated management practices exert strong impacts upon soil organic carbon stocks. Data on the soil organic carbon were collected for different land-use types within a small watershed, El Salado, located in Lanjarón (SE Spain). Eight land-use types namely: farmland planted in olive, almond, and cereals; forest with Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus sylvestris L. stands; shrubland; grassland; as well as abandoned farmland were taken into consideration. Of the land-use types investigated, forest, shrubland, as well as grassland exhibited the highest average soil organic C stocks (100-63 Mg ha-1) in contrast with the abandoned farmland (28 Mg ha-1), with farmland representing a go-between situation (51-49 Mg ha-1). The environmental factors precipitation, temperature, and elevation significantly influenced (P < 0.01) the soil organic C stock, with the contents tending to be higher in mountain soils with respective intermediate values of 600-800 mm, 10-15°C, and 1, 000-1, 500 m asl. Thus, the present approach offers a comparison of C-sequestration patterns as related to the land-use types in a Mediterranean agroforestry landscape, where the main challenge is to integrate the forest trees and the crops within their harmonious interacting combinations. Source


Fernandez-Tirado F.,University of Granada | Fernandez-Tirado F.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Parra-Lopez C.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Romero-Gamez M.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA
Energy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

The spread of biofuels has generated controversy at international, national and regional levels due to the environmental, economic and social impacts that its production and consumption can cause. Recently, the Spanish government has been promoting the production of biodiesel in industrial plants located in Spain and other EU countries. These developments are expected to stimulate the cultivation of rapeseed in the EU to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina, which has been one of the main suppliers of biodiesel in Spain for years. As a result, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of biodiesel consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of biodiesel produced in Spain and Argentina with rapeseed cultivated in Spain and soybean cultivated in Argentina were compared under certain growing conditions using life cycle assessment (LCA). Consequential and attributional approaches were compared under the ReCiPe method to test potential biases. The results showed that the biodiesel produced with Argentinean soybean oil had fewer environmental impacts than biodiesel produced with Spanish rapeseed oil. Seed production (and fertilization) was the process (and sub-process) that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and it is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed-based biodiesel. © 2016 International Energy Initiative. Source


Parra-Lopez C.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Hinojosa-Rodriguez A.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Carmona-Torres C.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Sayadi S.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA
Food Control | Year: 2016

This article examines 1) the factors that condition the implementation of Quality Management Systems (QMS) meeting the requirements of ISO 9001 in the olive oil industry of Andalusia, the world-leading olive oil producing region in southern Spain; and 2) whether the implementation of ISO 9001 is associated with the use of better manufacturing and marketing practices by these industries. The study is based on a survey of 101 olive oil enterprises. As conditioning factors, the managerial and supervisory staff of ISO 9001 enterprises tend to be younger and more dynamic, highly educated and more in touch with new, high-quality sources of information, more willing to take risks, less focused on economic profit, and more oriented to selling olive oil further and faster. Good manufacturing practices are, in general, widespread in the Andalusian olive oil industry. Regarding marketing practices, ISO 9001 industries are more reliant on the use of ICTs and on the diversification of the type of olive oil sold. The policy implications of the work carried out are diverse if a wider implementation of ISO 9001 and better practices are the aim: fostering rejuvenation and formal education; training and information programmes based on successful ISO 9001 enterprises; proving the economic viability of ISO 9001; improving access to credit; and developing innovative marketing strategies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Carmona-Torres C.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Parra-Lopez C.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Hinojosa-Rodriguez A.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Sayadi S.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2014

This paper aims to contribute to methodology and practice for evaluating the multifunctionality of agriculture (MFA), including economic, environmental and social functions, by developing and applying an integrated farm-level multifunctionality model for the case of olive growing in Andalusia, the main olive growing region in the world. The purpose of this model is to assess the multifunctional performance of olive growing at farm-level according to the farming techniques implemented by olive growers, as land managers, in average conditions of olive cultivation in Andalusia. The proposed model is theoretically based on the Analytic Network Process (ANP), a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis method. The model is built on the knowledge of 27 experts and an extensive review of the international literature, and it draws from empirical data gathered from a survey of 400 farmers in the main olive oil producing zones of Andalusia. The application of the model is illustrated with a view to improving olive growing agri-environmental policies oriented to multifunctionality in Andalusia. The modelling results indicate that, in general, olive growers are applying technical alternatives which are optimal for obtaining a high quality product, but to a certain extent they are neglecting the social impacts and, to an even greater extent, the environmental impacts of their activity. Despite the positive evolution over the last decade, there is still much room for improvement. The most sensitive groups of farming practices generally in need of changes are soil management, irrigation and fertilization. The results also make it clear that an improved economic performance is not incompatible with social objectives, such as rural development and employment, and with the environmental protection of soil, water and biodiversity. Finally, the results indicate the higher multifunctional performance of some alternative farming packs. This is the case for both integrated production and intensive agriculture. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Parra-Lopez C.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Hinojosa-Rodriguez A.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Sayadi S.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA | Carmona-Torres C.,Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training IFAPA
Food Control | Year: 2015

Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) is a Certified Quality System (CQS) that guarantees that there is a link between the particular characteristics of the production process of certain foodstuffs and their geographical origin. However, there is room for manoeuvre with regard to the management practices implemented when it comes to PDO. This paper investigates the factors related to and explaining the adoption of PDO in the Andalusian olive industry, the main olive growing region in the world, including an analysis of the varying characteristics of mill enterprises, managerial and supervisory staff, and of the differences and similarities between the practices implemented by PDO enterprises compared with the rest. A structured personal interview was held with the managerial and supervisory staff of 101 olive mill enterprises in the main olive growing provinces of Andalusia. The results show that CQS are not in general very widespread but that PDO is relatively prevalent. However no clear adoption factors for PDO have been identified, since the structural characteristics of enterprises adopting PDO and the personal characteristics, attitudes and opinions of their managers and supervisory staff are very similar to those not adopting it. The adoption of PDO seems to be explained by a contagion effect among industries that are located within less favourable, steeply sloping areas. Moreover, the adoption of PDO is not generally linked to an implementation of better industrial practices, rather of better marketing practices, since in general optimal industrial practices are already widespread in Andalusian olive mills. The policy and management implications of enhancing economic viability by increasing the spread of PDO, and by improving the practices implemented by PDO enterprises, are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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